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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some of the assumptions that behaviorists make about learning?
Relationships among stimuli and responses.
Involves a change in behavior.
Most likely to occur when stimuli and responses occur at about the same time.
Many animals (including humans) learn in similar ways.
What are the major differences between classical and operant conditioning?
Classical-replacement of something
Operant-must make a response. Reinforcer must follow the response.
What is a "reinforcement," and what are the major types defined by behaviorists?
Anything that strengthens the probability that a behavior will be done again.
1 Primary 2 Secondary 3 Positive 4 Negative 5 Group Contingency 6 Premack Principle 7 Extrinsic 8 Intrinsic
What is Primary Reinforcement?
Biologically based. will work for EVERYONE!!! water, food, air,...
What is Secondary Reinforcement?
learned reinforcers. different ones will work for different people.
What is Positive Reinforcement?
add or give to people when they perform the desired behavior
What is Negative Reinforcement?
present people with negative stimulus in order to stop a behavior
What is Group Contingency?
everyone in group receives reinforcement based on group performance
What is Premack Principle?
(Grandma Principle) trade high probability behavior to get low probability behavior. (Eat your veggies if you want dessert.)
What are the mechanisms that cause people to reduce behavior in behaviorism?
Group Contingency
What is Group Contingency?
Everyone can receive reinforcement based on group performance
What is extinction?
Increase in response. Remove all reinforcement. (getting rid of)
What is Cueing?
Verbal cues. Body language. Physical proximity. Letting them know reinforcement is available.
What is Punishment I?
Do something to get them to stop a behavior. More primary and immediate.
What is Punishment II?
Take something away from the person that they value to end their behavior.
What are the side effects of punishment?
doesn't teach what to do (teaches what NOT to do)
emotional side effects (don't like people that punish you)
reinforcing to punisher (increases probability of punishing again)
What are ineffective forms of punishment?
physical punishment
psychological punishment
extra class work
out-of-school suspensions
What are some of the areas of influence that we see of behaviorism on American education?
Behavioral Objectives
Mastery Learning
Individualized approaches to instruction
Accountability movement
Direct instruction models (standardized test)
What are the biblical implications of behaviorism? Positive
Associative (with skills) (linking knowledge to skills)
Doing, not just knowing (they're connected)
What are the biblical implications of behaviorism? Negative
Naturalistic (Nothing but animals)
Humans are machines
Not responsible for actions (you're based on your environment)
What are the basic assumptions about learning made by social cognitive theorists?
-Behavior eventually becomes self-regulated (eventually we develop ability to reinforce/punish self)
-People can learn from observing others (imitation)
-Learning is an internal process, so not all learning is behavioral
-Behavior is directed toward goals that people set for themselves (set own goals)
-Reinforcement and punishment can indirectly influence learning (vicarious reinforcement)
What do social cognitivists believe about the relationship of reinforcement and punishment in their theory?
-for future responses are based on how current responses are reinforced or punished.
-are formed based on the consequences to others (vicarious experience)
-are based on how they are cognitively processed
-influence how we choose to behave
Non-occurrences of expected consequences have reinforcing or punishing effect
What is a live model?
people that the learner has proximity to
most powerful
people they can observe and interact with
What is a symbolic model?
Character (real or fake) (past, present, or future)
What is a synthesized model?
occur later in life
develop ideal sense of you
pull different traits from different people
(Role Model)
What is a verbal mediation model?
refer to a model
WWJD? refers to Jesus as a model
What makes an effective model?
prestige and power
gender appropriate behavior
behavior relevant to the learner's situation
What are the variables that affect our ability to learn from models?
motivation and reinforcement (direct, vicarious, self-reinforcement)
Define "reciprocal causation" and the three variables associated with it?
1. environmental factors
2. personal factors
3. behaviors
What are the biblical implications associated with social cognitive theory? (positive)
-the importance of models (show others Christ)
-importance of values (influence what we choose)
-responsibility for actions
- development of "ideal-self" (Christ-likeness)
What are the biblical implications associated with social cognitive theory? (negative)
-influence of sin nature on goals/expectations (all about me!)
-choosing models that benefit self (not others) (don't pick best models sometimes)
What are the major differences between cognitive and behavioral theories of learning?
Cognitive Theories says that behavior is NOT learning!
What are the five types of knowledge that cognitivists normally talk about?
What is General Knowledge?
can be used across different domains (reading, writing, arithmetic)
What is Domain-Specific Knowledge?
specific to a certain discipline or specific subject
What is declarative knowledge?
What is Procedural Knowledge?
doing things
What is conditional knowledge?
knowing when to use certain declarative or procedural knowledge
What are the general characteristics of sensory memory?
Capacity: Very large, takes in more than we can handle
Duration: 1-3 seconds
Content: coded briefly as images, auditory sensations as sounds patterns, other sensations have own code.
What are the general characteristics of working memory?
Capacity: Very limited (5-9 new items or "chunks")
Duration: 5-20 sec
Content: images that resemble perceptions from sensory register; or abstractions based on meaning from long-term memory
Retrieval: immediate
What are the general characteristics of long-term memory?
Capacity: practically unlimited
Duration: permanent (limitations on retrieval)
Content: propositional networks, schema, imagery, prototypes, scripts, episodes, procedures
Retrieval: depends on representation and organization
What are some reasons that are attributed to forgetting?
-Interference: working memory has limited space
-Reconstruction Error: when we recall LTM and WM does not remember exactly
-Decay: out of practice
-Failure to retrieve due to context
-Failure to store: does NOT get to LTM
What is "metacognition" and what are some of the functions attributed to it?
-Controls all other parts of the memory
-executive control processes
-knowledge regulation
-thinking and learning regulation 1. Planning 2. Monitoring 3. Evaluation
What is the difference between teaching declarative and procedural knowledge?
D: triangle on tip 1. construct meaning 2. organize 3. store
P: pyramid 1. construct model 2. shape 3. internalize
What are the biblical implications of cognitive theory? (positive)
active learners
what we know effects what we learn
the importance of attention
What are the biblical implications of cognitive theory? (negative)
Knowing and doing
sin effects perception
attention as will not just sensation
Define "constructivism" and what are the basic assumptions about learning made by constructivists?
-View that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and make sense of information.
-learning is an active process, people learn to learn as they learn, constucting meaning is mental, learning is a social activity, learning is contextual, we build on what we know, learning takes time, motivation is a key component in learning
What are the three types of constructivism?
External (exogenous)
Internal (endogenous)
Both external and internal (dialectical)
What is external constructivism?
absolute truth does exist and humans have the capacity
What is internal constructivism?
what is true is what you make up in mind
What are the common themes seen in most constructivist classrooms?
-complex, challenging learning environments and authentic tasks
-social and shared responsibility in learning
-multiple representations of content
-understanding that knowledge is constructed
-student-centered instruction