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228 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Full Range Leadership Development
Leader, Follower, Situation

Effective: Active, good leadership


Trait Theory
Leadership effectiveness based on traits. Great Man theory
Skills Theory
Leadership effectiveness based on intelligence
Management By Exception (Passive)
If it isn't broke, don't fix it.
Management by Exception-Active
The focus of the leader isto monitor and control followers through forced compliance with rules, regulations, andexpectations for meeting performance standards and behavioral norms.
Transformational leadership
Transformationalleaders are those who transform their followers. Through the use of inspiration andmotivation,
Leadership scale
Lasse Faire ->Transactional->Transformational
Hindrances to Critical Thinking
Basic Human Limitations

Use Of Language

Faulty Logic


Sociological Pitfalls

Hindrances to Critical Thinking

Basic Human Limitations

1. Confirmation Bias and Selective Thinking

2. False Memories and Confabulation

3. Personal Biases and Prejudices

4. Physical and Emotional Hindrances

5. Testimonial Evidence

Hindrances to Critical Thinking

Use of Language

1. Ambiguity

2. Assuring Expressions

3. Meaningless Comparisons

Hindrances to Critical Thinking

Faulty Logic or Perception
1. Superstition

2. Argument from Ignorance

3. False Analogies

Hindrances to Critical Thinking

Psychological and Sociological Pitfalls.
1. Ad hominem Fallacy

2. Ad populum, Bandwagon Fallacy

3. Emotional Appeals

Facione’s Scoring Rubric
Used to score critical thinking
Two System Approach to Decision Making
Reactive Thinking (Memorized process)

Reflective Thinking (Think, Decide, Reflect)

Profession of Arms
Military is a profession, like a doctor or a lawyer and has it's own rules and customs
Warrior Ethos
Describes the frame of mind of the professional Airman—it is part of ourculture.

It proclaims our selfless commitment to our Nation, mission, unit, and fellowAirmen.

Military Culture and Airmanship
Military culture comprises the beliefs and attitudes within a military organization thatshape its collective preferences toward the use of force.

Airmen refer to these beliefs andattitudes as air-mindedness.

Little Brown Book
AFI 36-2618, The Enlisted Force Structure
Little Blue Book
Core Values
Values Conflict
When personal values conflict with AF values
The Continuum of Professionalism
Scale of professionalism (left=bad, right-good)
P2 Progressive Professionalism
Constantly striving to move towards the right on the Continuum of Professionalism
Direction Discipline, Recognition

Foundation of P2

Basic Metabolic Rate (Metabolism)
FOSI Principle
(Form Over Speed and Intensity)
High Intensity Exercise Endurance (HIEE)
The application of maximal physical effort systematically applied to a technically developed motor skill.
Ethical Leadership
Combines ethical decision-making and ethical behavior

Make ethical decisions and behave in ethical ways

The core beliefs we hold regarding what is right and fair
Values that we attribute to a system of beliefs that help us define right from wrong
The study of what we understand to be good and right behavior and the study ofhow we judge those behaviors.
Military ethics
Values and expected rules of the profession that areappropriate to actions taken within the military environment
Ethical relativism
In ethics, the belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong
Ethical Dilemma
Situations where one is forced to choose between two alternatives (both alternativescan be unfavorable and/or less right and more right or less wrong and more wrong).
Ethically Minded Organization
An organization that exemplifies professionalism, humility, self-control, personaldiscipline, and values.
Ethical Traps
confusion or uncertainty as to what action or behavior should be taken

Ethical Relativism

Loyalty Syndrome

Worry over image

Drive for Success

Loyalty Syndrome
Making decisions based on respect and/or loyalty to anindividual, unit, or organization etc. rather than on military rules, regulations andcodes of conduct.
Worry Over Image
Making decisions based on how the decision will impactone’s reputation/standing
Drive for Success
Making decisions based on a “win at all cost” attitude ratherthan on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct
Toner’s six tests
Consider all of the consequences, including the best and worst outcomes of your decision.Ask yourself if you can accept both outcomes.

Shame, Community, Legal, Situation, God, Consequences

Toner's Ethical Principles
Three O’s (owing, ordering, and oughting)

Three P’s (principle, purpose, people)

Three R’s (rules, results, and realities)

Three D’s (discern, declare, and do).

Compliance is the act or process of complying to a desire, demand, proposal, or regimen orto coercion.
The quality or state of beingaccountable; an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for one’saction.
Personal Accountability
Accepting complete responsibility for you behavior
Workplace Accountability
Creatingan environment where accountability is clear and fully accepted
Training expected to produce aspecific character or pattern of behavior, especially training that produces a moral ormental improvement
Task discipline
How well we meet the challenge of the job
Group discipline
Effective Teamwork
Imposed discipline
Enforced obedience to legal orders and regulations
A willing and instinctive sense of responsibility that leads us to dowhatever needs to be done
A state of order and obedience existing within a unit that involves theready subordination of an individual’s will for the good of the unit
Negative unit
Lack of excellence, productivity and camaraderie
Positive unit
Exhibit a common set of traits that foster excellence,productivity and camaraderie.
A composite of individual characteristics,experiences, and abilities.
Demographic Diversity
Inherent or socially defined personal characteristics, includingage, race/ethnicity, religion, gender, socioeconomic status, family status, disability, andgeographic origin.
Cognitive / Behavioral Diversity
Differences in styles of work, thinking, learning, and personality.
Organizational / Structural Diversity
Organizational / institutional background characteristics affecting interaction, including Service, component, and occupation/career field.
Global Diversity
Intimate knowledge of and experience with foreign languages and cultures, inclusive of both citizen and non-citizen personnel.
We are different but we are the same

Respects differences betweenpeople while highlighting similarities

Striking the Right Balance
Striking the right balance between the individual’s needto align with the organizational culture and the organization’s need to recognize individualdifferences
Individual Consideration
When leaders treat others as individuals with different needs, abilities,and aspirations and not just part of a group of subordinates
Judging to Valuing Ladder





Golden Rule
treat others as one would like others to treat oneself

Five Part Transformational Process:

Effective way for leadersto move their organizations from awareness to understanding to action






Resource Stewardship
The prudent use of allocated funds and the efficientand effective use of time as well as assigned facilities, space, equipment, and people
Resource Allocation Process
Funds flow down


Air Force

Majcoms, FOAs, DRUs



Cost Center Managers CCMs

The Budget Execution Review (BER)
Review cycle conducted twice during the FY to identify, validate, prioritize, and request additional resources for unfunded requirements.
1st Budget Execution Review (BER)
Due in 1st half of January
2nd Budget Execution Review (BER)
Due in mid-May
Financial Execution Plan(FEP)
Product used by the Air Force to balance available funding, risks andrequirements
Standard Financial Execution Plan (FEP) Format
Section 1: Mission Critical Requirements

Section 2: Justification

Section 3: Unfunded Requirements

Section 4: Spend Plan

Anti-Deficiency Act (ADA)
Can't obligate money you don't have
Financial Execution Plan (Part I - funded level)
A submission level in the financial plan that equals (funded requirements) the planning number provided with the call instructions.
Financial Execution Plan (Part II - unfunded level)
A submission level in the financial plan that includes all requirements exceeding (unfunded) the planning number
Cost Center Managers (CCMs)
Regulates the daily use of work hours, supplies, equipment, and services in producing or doing things.
Organizational Change Request (OCR)
The instrument used to activate, inactivate, redesignate, or reorganize organizations
AuthorizationChange Request (ACR)
A multi-purpose instrument used to propose adjustments to a Unit Manpower Document (UMD).
Airmen Powered by Innovation (API)
Replaced the following programs: Innovative Development Through Employee Awareness (IDEA), Best Practices (BP), Productivity Enhancing Capital Investment (PECI), and expanded the Air Force Smart Operations for the Twenty-first Century (AFSO21).
Airmen Powered by Innovation (API) Phases
Ideation/Submission Phase

Evaluation Phase

Implementation Phase

Hold-the Gains Phase

Strategic planning
Begins with the desired-end and works backward to the current status.
Strategic Alignment & Deployment(SA&D)
Method used to ensure everyone in AF organizations is working effectivelytowards the same goals identified by senior leadership. It is a product of annual strategic andperformance planning
What we choose to prioritize, our actions in support of our priorities, the order in which we take them, and how we allocate resources against our priorities to support the Nation’s Objectives
The translation of the vision into measurable results.
Cascading process
To communicate, align, and validate HQ, NAF, Wing, andintra-Wing strategies
A statement of an ideal state of being or existence in the future that is inspiring and empowering…creates a context for process of planning a future for the organization.
A plan to move an organization from their current state to a more desirablefuture state.
SWOT analysis
Brainstorming Strengths and Weaknesses from an internal stand point.

Then brainstorming Opportunities and Threats from an external standpoint.

Identify major strategic focus areas on your watch
Communicate what strategic action must be accomplished to realize the intent of thePriority
Communicate the intent of the objective statement and reflect how the objective will beachieved.
Support the objectives at a level where primes and target completion dates can beestablished.
Balanced Score Card (BSC)
A strategy management system for establishing and communicating anorganization’s mission, vision and strategy map to customers, stakeholders and employees,and for aligning day-to-day work to the strategy.

It is a more dressed up version of the aboveStrategy Map

Continuous Process Improvement (CPI)
Provides (DoD) a time-tested and proven approach foranalyzing how we currently conduct business and improve our operations.
Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century(AFSO21)
The Air Force’s unique CPI model

Deliver a consistent and disciplined problem solving approachthat is encoded in the DNA of every Airman

AFSO21 is not
The blind search for metrics without logical application, or the ceaseless quest for "great"performance-report bullets
focuses on processes, not people

Wingman Concept

Airmen taking responsibility for each other by being alert to other Airmen indistress and intervening when they need help

A need the customer is willing to pay extra to receive, easily expressed in terms ofa specific required product or service
Anything that adds cost or time without adding value
Go and See
The Process Owner or Team Lead shouldphysically go to the actual place/source of the problem and observe first-hand what is takingplace
Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
A simple diagram of every step involved in the material and information flowsneeded to bring a product from order to delivery
Standard Work
The best known way to complete a task.

Ensures that the same work will take the same amount of resources toachieve the same results every time.

1. Sort – eliminate what is not needed

2. Straighten – arrange items to be accessible and visible

3. Shine – clean everything and keep it clean

4. Standardize – create rules to maintain first 3 S’s

5. Sustain – keep 6-S activities from unraveling

6. Safety – Identify and eliminate safety hazards

Theory of Constraints (TOC) –
A process improvement technique focused onmaximizing throughput by use of a “constraint-based” approach.
Observe, Orient, Decide, Act
8 Step Problem Solving
Clarify problem, Break it down, Set improvement targets, Determine root causes, Develop countermeasures, See countermeasures through, Confirm Results
Fish Bone Diagrams
A simple way to visuallydepict the relationship between specific categories of process inputs and the undesirableoutput
Ability to adjust self to changed, unexpected or ambiguous situations
Cognitive Flexibility:
The ability to use different thinking strategies and mental frameworks
Emotional Flexibility:
The ability to vary your approach to dealing with your own emotions and those of others
Dispositional Flexibility:
The ability to remain optimistic and at the same time realistic
Janssen’s Model of Change
Contentment, Denial, Confusion, Renewal

(Four Room Apartment)

Diffusion of Innovation
Five levels or reactions to change

Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards

The NoNo Problem
Always ready with ten reasons why thecurrent situation is fine, why the problems and challenges others see don’t exist or whyyou need more data before acting
Eight Steps for Transforming an Organization
Step 1. Establish a Sense of Urgency

Step 2. Creating the Guiding Coalition

Step 3. Developing a Vision and Strategy

Step 4. Communicating the Change Vision

Step 5. Empowering Others for Broad Action

Step 6. Generating Short-Term Wins

Step 7. Consolidating Gains

Step 8. Anchoring New Approaches

The process of leading, coordinating, planning, and controlling a diverse and complex set of processes and people in the pursuit of achieving project objectives
Project initiation stage

Project planning and design stage

Project execution and construction stage

Project monitoring and controlling systems Project completion

assemblage of persons (or objects) located or gathered together
a group organized to work together
Leadership and Force Development
The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken
Four Personal Approaches




Conceptual Approach
prefers to come up with new ideas
Spontaneous Approach
prefers freedom from constraint
Normative Approach
prefers to put ideas into a familiar context, relying on past experiences
Methodical Approach
prefers order and rationality
Team Roles





focus on the possibilities
focus on the interaction
focus on the analysis
focus on the realization
can focus on everything
The P.E.P Cycle
Panic, Elation, Panic

Describes brainstorming process

Stages of the “Z” Process




A process involving two or more people/groups where the parties have a degree of difference in positions and strive to reach agreement on issues or course of action
Interest-Based Negotiations (IBN)
The practice of focusing on the interests, and not the positions of the two negotiating parties.
An offer that is at (or slightly more aggressive) than the aspiration point
Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement

An alternative that, should negotiations fail, you are willing and able to execute without the other party’s participation or permission

Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA)
Overlapping (common) area of each party’s aspiration point and reservation point
Divergent thinkers
Tend to be creative and spontaneous. They are comfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity
Convergent Thinkers
Tend to be reliable, rational, and principle-based. They constantly work to reduce uncertainty and ambiguity
Illustrates how trust influences your use of information and power, and how information and power influence the way you develop options to resolve a dispute, solve a problem, and find a solution.
Negotiation Strategy


Not now, can you come back later?

Low Trust

Low Power

Negotiation Strategy


Yes, absolutely, let’s do it your way

Some Trust

Low Power

Negotiation Strategy

Take it or Leave it

Low/No Trust

Very high Power

Negotiation Strategy

Let’s just split the difference and call it a day

High Trust

Equal-Low Power

Negotiation Strategy


Let’s work together and come up with an even better idea

High Trust

Shared Power

Focusing on the underlying interests, we treat disputes and issues as mutual problems to solve rather than a contest of wills and personalities
Evaluative Mediation
Mediator describes the issue, offers an opinion on the strengths and weaknesses of each party’s side
Facilitative Mediation
Encourages the parties to discuss matters freely and voluntarily participate in the mediation process
Cross-Cultural Competence (3C)
High Context and Low Context Cultures
Low Context Culture
Focuses on tasks. USA/Western Europe
High Context Culture
People focused. Mid-East, Asia


The ability to withstand, recover, and/or grow in the face of stressors andchanging demands

The Four Pillars of Fitness

Mental Fitness

Social Fitness

Physical Fitness

Spiritual Fitness

The Five Cs







the criminal who assaults the victim


person who enables, encourages, or creates a situation orenvironment that allows a perpetrator to act


a person who sees the potential for a sexual assault.


the person assaulted by the perpetrator

Restricted Report

Confidential, investigation is victims choice

Unrestricted Report

Not-Confidential, reported through chain of command

Limited Privilege Suicide Program (LPSP)

Identify and treat those who pose a genuine risk forsuicide because of impending disciplinary action under the UCMJ.

Information protected under thisprogram may not be used in existing or future UCMJ action

Strategic Communication

USG efforts to engage audiences to further national goals. PR

Airmen have a responsibility in this

On-the-Record interview:

Consider everything you say ―on-the-record

Background interview:

The background interview allows you to provide context to stories, ensure the proper emphasis is placed on key aspects, and stories are accurately reported

Off-the-Record interview:

Clearly state which portion of the interview is ―off-the-record‖ to ensure there is no chance of confusion

Interview Techniques


Taking advantage of opportunities before the interview to get the reporterinterested in what you want to talk about.

Interview Techniques


A technique used to move from the reporter‘s agenda to your message.

Interview Techniques


A technique used to emphasize your message.


Guidance that is directive or instructive, stating what is to be accomplished


Defines how operations should be conducted to accomplish national Policy objectives


Presents considerations on how to accomplish military goals and objectives.

It isa storehouse of analyzed experience and wisdom.

National Security Strategy

Drafted by NSC. Outlines national security goals and overall strategy.

NationalSecurity Act of 1947

Created the National Security Council (NSC)

National Defense Strategy

A Strategy thatcomplements the NSS, created by DoD.

National Military Strategy (NMS)

Signed by the CJCS, supports the aims of the NSS and implements the NDS

Operational Art

The application of creative imagination by commanders and staffs to design strategies, campaigns,and major operations and organize and employ military forces

Operational Design

Extends operational art‘s vision with a creative process that helpscommanders and planners answer the ends–ways–means–risk questions







The ability to quickly and accurately comprehend, then appropriately and effectively act across all cultural environments without necessarily having prior exposure to a particular group, region, or language


Creation, maintenance, and transformation across generations of semishared patterns of meaning, sense-making, affiliation, action, and organization by groups

Domains of Culture:

Broad categories under which humans commonly organize cultural knowledge, beliefs, values, and behavior (e.g., kinship, gender, economic exchange, etc.


Human tendency to negatively judge others’ cultures, beliefs, and values against one’s own

Cultural Relativism

When the beliefs and practices of one culture (e.g. what is considered right or wrong,) may not agree with other cultures


The idea that all aspects of culture are connected to other aspects

i.e. gender affects kinship, which affects politics ect.


Collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group

OODA Loop (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act)

Closed loop cycle that can help you gather information in a focused way


Non-verbal elements of speech including tone, pitch, rate, and pauses

Power Distance:

Extent to which the less powerful members of an organization and/or institution accept and expect that power is distributed unequally

12 Domains of Culture







Iceberg of Culture

Surface: Behaviors

Just below: Systems and Structures

Deep Below: Values and Beliefs


Tendency to consider extended family affiliations and being a member of a larger group as very important throughout a person's life

Everywhere except N. America and W. Europe


Extended family ties play a less important role in our lives, and we do not usually consider the influence of larger groups when we make decisions about our lives

N. America and W. Europe

Communication Styles (Non-Verbal)

Haptic: Touching

Proxemics: Use of Distance

Chronemics: Use of Time

Kinesics: Facial expressions and gestures

Goldwater Nichols Act of 1986

Origin of the Joint Org.

Restructured military chain of command.

Established SECDEF and CJCS as heads of the forces.


Administrative Control


Operational Control


Tactical Control

COCOM Numbers and Categories

6 Geographical (N, S, Eu, Pa, Afr, Cent)


Supported Commander

Actually doing the mission. Supported by other units when needed. Usually COCOM. Has OPCON of Forces

Supporting Commander

Provides units to supported CC. Usually relinquishes OPCON of units to supported CC.

Relationship between CCs

Supported or Supporting

Relationships between CC and Forces


Relationships between Forces and CC

Assigned, Attached, or Direct Support

Command of Guard and Reserves

ADCON to service components

OPCON to mobilized assigned CC

Guard non-mobilized OPCON to Governor

Homeland Defense

CBRNE Response

Missile Defense

SS Aviation Sup.

Civil Support

Natural Disaster response

Mobile Redundant Command Centers

Joint Op Planning

Ties militaryinstrument of national power to the achievement of national security goals


National Command Authorities


JPEC (Joint Planning & Execution Community)

Headquarters, commands, and agencies involved in joint operation planning

NSC (National Security Council)

Provides the framework to establish national security strategy

Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS)

Primary means by which the CJCS performsjoint strategic planning

Link between strategic planning and joint operationplanning

Guidance for Employment of the Force (GEF)

Provides two-year direction to combatant commands for operational planning, force management, security cooperation, and posture planning

Assigned Forces

Secretaries of the Military Departments assign forces under theirjurisdiction to combatant commands to perform missions assigned to those commands

Allocated Forces

A decision totake US Forces from one combatant command and deploy it to another

Apportioned Forces

Thedistribution of forces for planning of limited resources among competing requirements

Not physicallydeployed or reassigned; they are simply used as a planning factor

Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan(JSCP)

Carries out the Chairmans National Military Strategy by directing the CINCs to accomplish strategic planning


Defense Department’s resource allocation system


Contingency or Crisis Action Planning

CJCS joint planning system.

Governs all aspects of conventional joint military operations planning and execution.

The JOPES Process

Campaign planning, contingency planning, and crisis action planning

Contingency planning


Concept Development

Plan Development

Plan Review

Supporting Plans


Situation Development

Crisis Assessment

COA Development

COA Selection

Execution Planning



Purposeful reliance of joint and coalition partners on each other’scapabilities to maximize the complementary and reinforcing effects of all


The ability of joint/coalition partners to work together in anefficient and synergistic manner

Multipurpose Capabilities

Weapons and equipment need to possess thecapability for effective application in two or more basically different military or civilianfunctions

Navy PME

E-1 to E3: Basic Salorization and Military Citizenship

• E-4 : Petty Officer Indoctrination

Chief Petty Officer (CPO): CPO Selectee Course

• Senior/Master Chief Petty Officer: Senior Enlisted Academy•

Command Leadership: Chief of Boat and Command Master/ Senior Course


Sergeants Major Course

Advances Course: Gunnery sergeants

Career Course: SSGTs

Sergeants Course: SGTs

Command Sponsored Corporals Course

Army PME

Command Sergeants Major Course (CSMC)

Advanced Leader Course (ALC): SSGTs

Sergeants Major Academy

Senior Leader Course (SLC): SFCs

Warrior Leader Course (WLC): First NCO Course