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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
6 major research methods to study effects of media violence
lab experiments, field experiments, correlational surveys, longitudinal panel studies, natural experiments, intervention studies
content analysis
researchers must 1st clearly define violent content, then carefully watch various programs to code each instance of violence as it occurs
violence profile
provides an objective appraisal of the amount of violence contained in each tv drama
5 key elements of context that make people susceptible to negative effects
a perpetrator who is an attractive model, violence that seems justified, violence that goes unpunished, minimal consequences to victims, violence that seems realistic to viewer
an examination of the vast body of research studies using statistical methods to combine findings and look for overall indications of effects as well as general trends
3 different levels of psychological impact that violent media fare have on viewers
behavioral, affective, cognitive
5 major mechanisms through which behavioral effects may occur
imitation, catharsis, arousal, disinhibition, desensitization
allows viewers to vent their aggressive impulses harmlessly through viewing televised violence or by fantasizing about violent acts
as viewers grow more accustomed to seeing violence on tv, they become less inhibited by social sanctions against committing violent acts
involves repeated exposure to the frightening matter in a secure and nonthreatening atmosphere
coping strategies can be
cognitive (changing mental conceptions) or noncognitive (i.e. desensitization)
levels of judgment
four leading categories of factors influencing the strength of tv's influence on viewers' perceptions of the world; program specificity, viewer perceptions or interpretations, personal judgments about crime, situation specificity
3 phases in public policy debate concerning media violence
focused upon rising rate of juvenile delinquency, expanded to include concern about effects of tv violence on social behavior/well-being of society in its entirety, shifter to proactive attempt to reduce tv violence through legislative restrictions
5 behavioral effects of media violence
catharsis, arousal, imitation, disinhibition, desensitization
the graphic and explicit depictions of sexual activity
5 types of materials classified as pornographic
materials that depict sexual violence such as rape or other sex crimes, nonviolent sexual materials that depict instances of degrading or humiliating activities, or scenes of domination and subordination, nonviolent sexual material without degrading activities, materials that depict nudity, child pornography
as legally defined by US Supreme Court, must meet 3 criteria: the material appeals to a prurient (sick) interest in sex, material is potently offensive or beyond the contemporary community standards regarding depictions of sexual content of activity, the material as a whole lacks "serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value"
4 major themes in x-rated videos
domination, reciprocity, exploitation, autoeroticism
a change in values or attitudes that occurs over time as a previously taboo behavior is gradually accepted because of repeated exposure to mass media
causes changes in behavior in much the same way that desensitization causes changes in attitudes and values
excitations transfer
viewing arousing erotic materials tends to enhance aggressive tendencies in individuals
excitation-and-valence model
pleasing and (non)arousing erotica reduce aggressiveness; displeasing and nonarousing erotica increase aggression
prevailing tone
the context of the material and the context in which the person is exposed to it, as a whole
four-factor syndrome
the four major effects of consuming pornography are addiction, escalation, desensitization, and the tendency to act out or copy
5 standards by which to measure prevailing tones
seriousness/triviality of treatment; artistic merit/intent; necessary to the plot/degree of explicitness; context of viewing; cultural context
3 categories of stimuli that recur in media content, usually resulting in fear responses in real life
dangers and injuries, distortions of natural forms, the experience of endangerment and fear by others
3 important factors that cause audience to react emotionally when they see fearful situations on screen
realism of depiction, motivations of viewer, other factors that affect a viewer's emotionality
2 strategies for coping with fear
noncognitive strategies, cognitive strategies
noncognitive strategies
those that don't require the viewer to process verbal information (preschoolers)
cognitive strategies
those that require the activation of cognitive processes (i.e. talking about the fear) (elementary school age +)
hard news
the report of an event that happened or was disclosed within the previous 24 hours and treats an issue of ongoing concern
5 primary characteristics of a newsworthy story
personalized; dramatic, conflict-filled, controversial, violent; actual & concrete, not theoretical & abstract; novel or deviant; linked to issues of ongoing concern to news media
zeroing in on an individual as a vehicle to tell a major story
secondary characteristics that define hard news stories
inoffensive, perceived as credible, packageable, oriented toward a local angle
soft news
human interest stories, stories that are not considered fast breaking or immediate in nature
news diffusion
examines that ways that people hear about news items and the rapidity by which news spreads
several characteristics that affect diffusion
important or high impact event, timing of release, audience demographics
rally effects
in times of a national crisis when the president must take action and people in the country rally behind him and his approval rating subsequently goes up
mass media contribute to rally effects in 2 ways:
serve as vehicle through which information reaches the public; during times of crisis, media usually less critical of government leaders and policies in their effort toward solidarity building
public communication campaigns
messages intended to offer the public certain knowledge intended to produce attitude or behavior change
concepts that are central to the understanding of communication campaigns
objectives & methodsl strategy to facilitate change; potential benefits from proposed change; campaign stakeholders; public perceptions about the stakeholders
2 defining characteristics of communication campaigns
objectives, methods
three E's
the three basic strategies of social control that have been identified as causing changes in levels of knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors; education, engineering, enforcement
the individuals, groups, associations, or organizations that initiate the campaign stemming from their interest in promoting reform
the concept that the source of the campaign messages must be seen as an individual or group who is entitled to offer the messages, place them on the public's issues agenda, and attempt to change the behavior of audiences
2 classes of public issues
obligations, opportunities
2 classes of stakeholders
first-party entitlement, second-party entitlement
first-party entitlement
refers to a situation in which an aggrieved group of stakeholder is seen by the public to be directly affected by an issue
second-party entitlement
pertains to circumstances in which a group is not directly impacted by a particular issue
10 principles for successful campaigns
1. understand historical & conceptual dimensions

2. apply & extend relevant theory

3. understand theoretical implications and interactions of campaign components

4. plan the campaign: match objectives to cost benefits

5. apply formative evaluation

6. analyze and understand the audience

7. analyze and understand media choices

8. mix multiple media and interpersonal channels when cost effective

9. understand uses and contradictions of mass media

10. identify reasonable criteria for campaign
extended parallel process model
recognizes two separate responses to fear appeals, either cognitive or emotional, and encourages a balance between 2
diffusion model
emphasizes spread of ideas/practices via interpersonal networks
transtheoretical model
identifies 5 stages in process of behavior change as part of audiences: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance
4 stages in preproduction research
indentify audience-related factors, specify behavior-related factors, identify the intermediate steps that occur after exposure to campaign message and before behavioral change takes place, identify media use factors
3 major types of audiences
focal segments, interpersonal influencers, societal policy makers
3 types of evaluative models that may be used to assess the campaign's success
advertising model, impact-monitoring model, experimental model
advertising model
focuses on early stages of communication hierarchy of effects
impact-monitoring model
focuses on social impacts in hierarchy of effects
experimental model
focuses on testing hypothesized casual chain through controlled manipulation of treatments