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186 Cards in this Set

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True

True/False: All blood cells are derived from a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell.

False

True/False: Heparin tubes (green top) are an excellent choice for doing a manual blood smear evaluation because this anticoagulant preserves cellular morphology.

EDTA Tube

Anticoagulant preferred for hematologic studies; does not alter cell morphology. Works by forming complex with calcium.

Heparin

Anticoag tubes. Used for tests requiring plasma samples (blood chemistry analysis). Cannot be used for differential (but WBCs don't stain). Prevents conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.

Cirtrate and Oxalates

Anticoag tube. Chelate calcium. Used for coag tests and transfusions. Can be mixed Na Fluoride to preserve GLUCOSE.

True

True/false: ICteric serum is normal in equine and ruminants.

Hypoxia

A broad term meaning diminished availability of oxygen to the body tissue.

Anemia

Leads to tissue hypoxia because there are not enough RBCs to carry O2 to where it is needed.

Anemia

Defined as decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

Something that is not a cause of anemia

Dehydration

Something that is a cause of anemia

Decreased production of RBCs, increased destruction of RBCs, and decreased hemoglobin concentration within RBCs.

Anisocytosis

A variation in red blood cell size.

Hemoglobin

The iron-containing respiratory pigment in RBCs of vertebrates. The function unit of an RBC

Red/tiger top

The color top tube used when pulling blood for a serum sample.

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MHCH)

Helpful in the classification of certain types of anemia. 3 RBC indices that provide an objective measurement of size of RBC and their average hemoglobin concentration.

Kidney

Organ that produces erythropoietin due to low oxygen tension.

Erythropoietin.

Primarly produced in the kidney cells. The specific cytokine responsible for the production of erythrocytes.


Lipemic

When the plasma is white or cloudy due to the presence of fats/lipids in the sample.



Lipemic sample

Sample that indicates recent meal, pathology ,or familiah in the miniature Schnauzer dog breed.

Hemolysis

Red or pinkish plasma in sample. Attributed to rough handling of blood (forced blood through needle into the tube), difficult venipuncture or due to an illness.

Purpose of a refractometer

Tell us how many :solids" are in a biological fluid.

Neutrophils

WBCs that are first responders in times of inflammation and function to phagocytize microorganisms, such as bacteria.

Von Willebrand's disease

The most common inherited coagulation disorder of domestic animals.

Heinz bodies

Round structures in RBCs representing denatured hemoglobin and caused by oxidative damage (drugs,chemicals). They can only been seen with new methylene blue stain.

Heinz body

Denature Hb due to oxidative damage (NMB stain)

Monocyte

WBC where the nucleus varies in shape, may be round to kidney bean to horsoe shaped. Function as phagocytes, among other things. Becomes a macrophage when it leaves the blood stream and enters the tissue.

Monocytes

Platelets

form a plug at points of blood vessel leakage (endothelial damage). Form a plug that serves to stop the bleeding. Begin the healing process in times of endothelial damage (blood vessel lining).

Iron

Deficiency in which mineral would cause microcytic anemia

Myelfibrosis

Medical term for when most of the bone marrow is replaced by scar tissue and in incapable of producing blood cells.

Slide 30

CBC Review 1

Spherocytes

Darkly staining cells, with decreased surface area and no central pallor, that are suggestive of Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia in the dog.

Eosinophil

Type of WBC with pink to lavender granules. Important in fighting parasites, and associated with allergic reaction.

Spherocyte


Horses and cats

Two species in which rouleaux i considered normal.

Metarubricyte

Another name for nRBC. If greater than 5 are seen, you need to correct the WBC count as to not have the counter count them at WBCs.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

The hemostatic disorder manifests as systemic hemorrhage or microvascular thrombosis.

See slide 36-37

CBC review 1

Reticulocytes.


They indicate regenerative anemia.


NMB needed to see them.

What are these? What do they indicate? What stain is needed to see them?

What are these? What do they indicate? What stain is needed to see them?

See slide 3

CBC review 2

Two types of cat reticulocytes

Punctuate and aggrgate (usually counted)

horses ; pigs

_____ don't show reticulocytes, but suckling _______ normally have many.

Reticulocyte count

Must be corrected for anemia if generated from an automatic hematology analyzer. An expression of the percentage of RBCs that are _____________. Determine the bone marrow's response to anemia.

Slide 5-8

CBC review 2

Two ways to classify anemia

Bone marrow response, and RBC size and hemoglobin concentration (RBC indices)

Bone marrow response

Regenerative will show nRBCs and reticulocytes. Blood loss or blood cell destruction. Non-regenerative has zero or very few (<1%) reticulocytes, indicating ______ ____________ dysfunction.

RBC Size and Hemoglobin Concentration

Normocytic - usually secondary to chronic disease.


Macrocytic - regenerative (reticulocytosis)


Microcytic - Iron deficiency


Hypochromic - Reticulocytosis


Normochromic - Most other types of anemia.

Slide 10

CBC Review 2

Neutrophils

Most common WBC in healthy dog and cat. Peripheral blood normally contains primarily segmented ones w/ occasional bands. Produced in bone marrow. Primary job is respond to inflammation or infecture. Phagocytize microorganisms such as bacteria.

Heterophils

Neutrophils in avian and some exotic species.

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil

When a neutrophil nucleus is elongated, in a mature neutrophil. Segmented. 3-5 nuclear lobes.

Band neutrophil

Immature neutrophil that is hypo-segmented.

dog/cat ; bovine

__________ the neutrophil cytoplasm stains pale pink with fine, diffuse clear granules. ___________ neutrophils may also stain pale pink.

Slide 15-17

CBC Review 2

Lymphocytes

Large nucleus, usually round to slightly indented nucleus. small ring of light blue cytoplasm with or without rare purple granules. Predominant WBC type in ruminants/bovines. 20-30% WBC.



3 types of lymphocytes

B Cells, T Cells, and Natural Killer cells.

Monocytes

Large cells with diffuse less dense nucleus. Nucleus varies in shape, kidney to horshoe shaped. BLue-gray abundant cytoplasm with or without vacuoles and granules. Functions as phagocytes.

Macrophage

A monocyte becomes a _________________ when it leaves the blood stream and enters the tissue.

Eosinophils

Often have segmented nucleus. Pink-lavender granules in cytoplasm, canine appearence can vary slightly with breed. Fighting parasites and play a role in allergies.

Feline ; equine

_____________ eosinophils have fine, rodlike lavendar granules. While ______________ ones are very distinctive with large, pink granules.

Basophils

WBCs rare in peripheral blood circulation. Granules stain purple to blue-black. Associated with symptoms seen in an allergic reaction such as swelling and bruising.

See slide 25

CBC review 2

Toxic change in neutrophils

Most common disease-induced change. Associated with inflammation, infection, and drug toxicity. If severe, indicate bacterial infection. More significant in dogs than cats.



Cause of toxic change in neutrophils

Decreased time of maturation in bone marrow, causing cytoplasm and nucleus to mature at different rates.

Types of toxic change

Cytoplasmic basophilia, Dohle's bodies (ribosomes seen in toxic neutrophils), vacuoles (foaminess), intensely-stained primary granules.

See slide 27-28


CBC Review 2

Platelets

Smallest blood "cell" that is actually a fragment of its precursor cell. Form a plug of points of blood vessel leakage (endothelial damage). Serves to stop the bleeding and to begin the healing process. Secrete numerous growth factors that air in blood vessel healing.

See slide 30 - 31

CBC Review 2



Platelet morphology

Anuclear, except in avian and some exotics. Clumping is common in cats and if observed the number is adequate. Large ones should be noted. LArger than RBCs in cats.

See slide 33-34

CBC review 2



Fine Needle Aspirate

Involves inserting a small needle (22G) into a mass, organ, or swelling, then depositing the collected material and onto a slide to be examined microscopically.

Exfoliative cytology

Study of cells shed from body surfaces, including cells present in fluid samples and secretions. the primary purpose of cytology is to differentiate inflammation and neoplasia.



Fine Needle Biopsy

If no aspiration is used to acquire a sample in Fine Needle Aspirate.

Histopathology

Observes cells in relation to their neighboring cells and evaluately cellular architecture. Requires a piece of tissue for review by a pathologist.

Cytology

Observes cells individually or in small groups. Cells randomly distributed with no evidence of their in vivo relationship to each other. Collection doesn't involve general anesthesia or surgical removal of the sample.

in vivo ; in vitro

_______ is latin for "within the living", while _______ is latin for within the glass, pertaining to examination via test tube, petri dish, etc.

Mycology

Study of fungi

Fungus

A general term for a group of eukaryotic organisms marked by their abscence of chlorophyll, the presence of a rigid cell wall in some stage of life, and the reproduction by means of spores.

Yeast

General term including unicellular, nucleated, usually rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Some are fermenters of carbs, and a few are pathogenic for animals.

Gram stain

Stain used to categorize bacteria as Gram + or Gram -. Will also detect Malassezia sp of yeast.



Acid-Fast stain

Stain primarily used to detect Myobacterium and Nocardia species, and leprosy.

Giesma stain

Stain primarily used for detection of spirochetes (lepto, borrelium ) and richettsiae, some fungal organisms, to detect the capsule of Baccillus anthracis and morphology of Dermatophilus congolensis (Rain scald)

Lactophenol cotton blue

Stain used only for microscopic identification of dermatophytes (such as ringworm)

New Methylene Blue

stain that will detect Malessezia organisms. Used to detect reticulocytes and Heinz bodies in a CBC.

Stains for organism identification

Gram stain, Acid Fast, Giesma, Lactophenol Cotton Blue, and New Methylene Blue.

Romanowsky Stain

Stain used for cell identification in cytological prep. Available as Diff-Quick, Wright's stain. Inexpensive, simple procedure, stains organisms and the cytoplasm of cells excellently.

New Methylene Blue Stain

Stain used for cell identification in cytological prep. Excellent nuclear and nucleoli detail. For detection of reticulocytes and Heinz bodies in CBS and Malassezia species of yeas from skin or ear cytologies.

Papanicoulaou Stains

Excellent nuclear and delicate cytoplasmic detail. Do not demonstrate bacteria as well as Romanowsky stain. difficult and time consuming.



Slide 11-13

Lecture 4

See slide 15-16

Lecture 4

What you're looking for in ear cytology

Gram + Bacteria (dark blue or purple)


Gram - Bacteria (Red)


Malassezia yeast (appear gram +)


Inflammatory cells (gram - )


Epithelial cells (Gram - or +)

Often stain gram - and may mask detection of gram - bacteria

Fibrin, mucus, erythrocytes.

Parasites found in ear cytology

Otodectes cyanosis, Demodex sp. (uncommon)

slides 18-26

Lecture 4

Anetrus

Reproductive cycle in dogs. No vulvar swelling, does not attract males dogs. Less than 4.5 months.

Proestrus

Reproductive cycle of dog. Swollen vulva, reddish vulvar discharge. Attracts but does not accept males. 4-13 days, 9 days on average.

Estrus


Reproductive cycle in dogs. Swollen vulva, pink to straw colored vulvar discharge, the bitch accepts the male dog attempting to mate, 4-13 days, 9 days on average.





Diestrus

Reproductive cycle in dogs. Vulvar swelling and discharge are decreased, bitch no longer accepts or attracts the male dog, lasts 2-3 months.

Cytological evaluation of vaginal tissue

Determine the stage of estrous cycle (dog and cat), aid timing of mating or artificial insemination.

Cells in vaginal cytology

Epithelial cells, blood cells, bacteria.

Slides 30-31

Lecture 4

Anestrus is dogs

Parabasal cells, non cornified squamous epithelial with rounded borders, abundant basophilic cytoplasm and a large, round nucleus.

Parabasal cells, non cornified squamous epithelial with rounded borders, abundant basophilic cytoplasm and a large, round nucleus.

Proestrus is dogs

High number of erythrocytes as seen early on. Eventually, signs of cornification, such as pyknotic nuclei occurs.

Pyknosis

Thickening, especially degeneration of a cell in which the nucleus shrinks in size and the chromatin condenses to a solid, structure-less mass or masses.

Estrus in dogs

All squamous cells are cornified and usuaally anuclear, neutrophils are absent, small numbers of erythrocytes, might be present. When AI or bleeding should occur.

All squamous cells are cornified and usuaally anuclear, neutrophils are absent, small numbers of erythrocytes, might be present. When AI or bleeding should occur.

Diestrus in dogss

Noncornified squamous epithelial cells return. Abundant cytological debris. Neutrophils increase in numbers until day 3, decrease by day 10. No erythrocytes. Metaestrus.

Pregnancy

in the dog reproductive cycle ______________ is not cytologically distinguishable from diestrus or anestrus.

Dermatophytes.

Readily cultured and identified. Keratinophilic. Chronic mild inflammations, can look like almost anything. Lesions expand peripherally. Ringwom.

Keratinophilic

Prefers tissues made of keratin. Invades hair, nails, and superficial layers of skin, but not living tissue.

See slide 38

Lecture 4

Microsporium canis

Dermatophyte that causes 70% of dog and 90% of cat ringworm cases, varying geographically.

Microsproum canis

Species of dermatophyte. Geophilic (rooting or digging in contaminated soil). Accounts for 20% of ringworm infections in dog.

Trichophyton mentagrophyes

Species of dermatophyte. 10% of canine infections.

guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits

All species of dermatophytes can affect dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and most other animals. Often diagnosed in __________ , _________, and ________.

Dermatophytosis

Zoonotic fungus identificed by direct examination of scale, skin, crusts from animal using KOH wet mount.

Zoonotic fungus identificed by direct examination of scale, skin, crusts from animal using KOH wet mount.

Dermatophytosis

Can be cultures in house using Sabouraud dextrose agar or DTM culture. Some species fluouresce under Woods lamp (blacklight). Not accurate.

DTM

modified type of Sabouraud agar that can culture dermatophytes.

KOH wet mount

Direct examination of dermatophytes. Microscopic examination of species. Look for macro-conidia, micro-conidia, and spores. Wet mounts (10% KOH and black India ink). Look for phypae in skin scales. Look for spores on hairs.

KOH wet mount

Place skin or hair sample on a slide with KOH solution and gently heat. Solution slowly dissolves skin cells but not the fungus cells. Fungus cells are then visible with a microscope.

Place skin or hair sample on a slide with KOH solution and gently heat. Solution slowly dissolves skin cells but not the fungus cells. Fungus cells are then visible with a microscope.

Slide 43-47

Lecture 4

Slide 49

Lecture 4

Fine Needle Aspirate/Biopsy techniques to distribute cells onto slide

Spray onto slide and stain.
Spread out if cell is thick.
Compression technique (squash test) is commonly used.
Combination technique (some squashed, some left alone).
Starfish smear.

Scrapinh

Use a dull surgical blade for detection of superficial parasite infections, and used for cytological preps.



Slide 53 - 54


Lecture 4



Lymph node aspirate

Similar to fine needle aspirate. Make multiple slides since they are often surrounded by fat. One in house prior to sending to a pathologist, and one to make sure you aspirated the node.



Lymph node aspirate

Used to differentiate reactive lymphadenitis, lymphatic cancer and metastatic cancer (spread)

Metastatic cancer:

The spread of cancer from its original (primary) location to other locations in the body. It is the same type of cancer as the original cancer, but in a different location. Common sites are the lung, liver, bone, and lymph nodes.

Slide 26

Lecture 4. Lymph nodes.

Fluid analysis

Come from various sources, usually via centesis including abdominocentesis, thoracocentesis, arthrocentesis, cerebrospinal fluid (CFS), Trans-trachel washes (TTW), and bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL).

Abdominocentesis

A fluid analysis that is the process of punctuting the abdomen with a needle to collect fluid for analysis.



Thoracocentesis

Type of fluid analysis. Process of puncturing the thorax with a needle to collect abdominal fluid for analysis.

Arthrocentesis

Type of fluid analysis. Process of puncturing a joint with a needle to collect synovial fluid for analysis.

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Type of fluid analysis. Collected from the subarachnoid space (space surrounding the spinal cord). Fluid contains very few nucleated cells.



Trans-tracheal wash

Type of fluid analysis. Inserting a needle percutaneously into the trachea in order to lavage the area with sterilesaline and then aspirate the fluid back into a syringe for analysis.

Bronchioalveolar lavage

Type of fluid analysis. Sterile ET tube is used to intubate the anesthetized animal. A sterile lube or catheter is introduced into the bronchioles, sterile fluid is introduced into this space and then aspirated into a syringe for analysis.

Analyses performed on fluid specimens

Gross appearence (clear, blood tinged, etc.)


Total protein


Total nucleated cell count (TNCC)


Cytologic evaluation of fluids, such as the different types of inflammation or neoplasia.


Classify a transudate, modified transudate, or exudate.



EDTA, red topped

Samples from fluid analysis are generally collected in a(n) ___________ tube to preserve cellular architecture, while a(n) _____________ tube with no additibe is preferred for bacterial culture.

Gross appearance

First fluid analysis step. Determine turbidity, color, sedimentation, possibly odors.



Total protein determination

Second fluid analysis step. Low would be <2.5 g/dL, high being > 3 g/L. Measure with refractometer and helps categorize fluid as transudate, modified transudate, or exudate.

Prepare slides for cytology evaluation

3rd stage of fluid analysis. If low cellulariet (<500/microliter), concentrations methods are necessary.


If low cellularity even with concentration techniques, use linear smear.


If adequate or thick cellularity, make as smear as you would a blood smear, leaving a feathered edge.


Stain slide using Romanowsky type stain, consider leaving in the fixative longer if high cellularity.


Make multiple slides.

Concentration methods for cytology evaluation

Low speed centrifugation


Gravitational sedimentation


Membrane filtration


Cytocentrifugation

Prepare slides for cytology evaluation

If sending outside the lab, send several stained an unstained smears.


Label well with permanent label


Send EDTA and red top tube with sample of fluid if possible so the lab cane make their own slides and culure the fluid if indicated.


Unfixed slides should be mailed seperately than formalin fixed histopathology samples.



Formalin

_______ alters the staining characteristic of samples in the preparation of smears in fluids.

Evaluation of cells / cell count; 100 ; 10000

Step 4 in fluid analysis. Microscopically determine type, morphologic characteristics and approximate cell counts.


Use the same technique for CBC by counting the # of cells per 10 LPF and multiply by 10. Perform a differential of at least _____ on __________x microscopy.


Normal ranges for cell count depends on where fluid is from.


Necessary to differentiate type of inflammation or characterize neoplasia as benign or malignant.

Inflammatory

Inflammation or neoplasia? Mainly neutrophils and macrophages. Suppurative or or pyogranulomatous. Eosinophilic. Mixtures of both exist.



Neoplasia

Inflammatory or neoplasia? Tissue cells.Means new growth; A homogenous population of single tissue/skin/tumor cell type. Can be either benign or malignant. Mixtures of both exist.

Suppurative

Type of inflammatory cytologic evaluation. Neutrophils represent > 85% of the nucleated cells present, look for bacterial or other infectious organisms.

Pyogranulomatous

Type of inflammatory cytologyic evaluation. Macrophages represent > 15% of nucleated cells present.

Benign

Type of neoplasia. Not causing harm, not light threatening, also known as hyperplastic.

Malignant

Type of neoplasia. A tendency to progress in virulence. In popular usage, any condition that, if uncorrected, tends to worsen so as to cause serious illness or death. Cancer.

Classify as transudate or exudate

Step 5 in fluid analysis

Transudate

Transudate, modified transudate, or exudate?


Non-inflammatory, clear, colorless, low TNCC, low TP. Ex. ascites from right sided heart failure.

Modified transudate

Transudate, modified transudate, or exudate?


Low NCC but high TP (2.5-7.5)



Exudate

Transudate, modified transudate, or exudate?


Inflammatory cells present, high TNCC, high TP (>3). Possibly bacteria present. Ex. pyothorax from aspirated and migrating grass awn.

Nuclear criteria of malignant neoplasia

Anisokayosis


Pleomorphism


High or varianle nucleus to cytoplasm ratio


Increased mitotic activity


Coarse chromatin pattern


Nuclear molding


Multi-nucleation


ANosonucleoliosis


Angular nucleoli


Multiple nucleoli



Anosokaryosis

Type of nuclear criteria of malignant neoplasia. Variation in nucleus size.



Pleomorphism

Type of nuclear criteria of malignant neoplasia.Variability in size and shape of the same cell type.

Increased mitotic activity

Type of nuclear criteria of malignant neoplasia. Mitosis is rare in normal tissue and any increased in mitotic figures, or cells that are not dividing equally is considered a malignant criteria.

Nuclear molding

Type of nuclear criteria of malignant neoplasia. Deformed nuclei by other nuclei within the same cells or adjacent cells.

Anisonucleoliosis

Type of nuclear criteria of malignant neoplasia. Variation is nucleoli size

Angular nucleoli
Type of nuclear criteria of malignant neoplasia

Variation in nucleoli stage.

Slide 71

Lecture 4

Transplacental and transmammary infection

How newborn puppies and kitten are often infected with nematodes

Coccidia

Common name for cystiopsora infections in dogs and cats (puppies and kittens with diarrhea)

Tapeworms, whipworms, coccidia

Parasites not killed by pyrantel pamoate

Pre-patent period

In an endoparasite, the time elapsed between the initial infection with a parasite until infection can be detected using common diagnostic procedures.

Parasites that cause cutaneous larval migrans

Ancylostoma and unicaria

Parasites that cause visceral/ocular larval migrans

Toxocara sp (ascarids or roundworms)

Babesia. B. canis, B. gibsoni

RBC parasite in dogs whose vector is a tick and can be seen on a blood smear as a piriform (tear shapes) organisms in pairs.

Dirofilaria immitis life cycle

· Adultfemale heartworm produces live L1 larvae called microfilariae, which arereleased into the bloodstream.
· The prepatentperiod is about 6 months· Femalemosquitos ingest the L1 when they bite the host, and they molt into infective L3 and migrate to proboscis ofmosquito.
· Theinfected mosquito bites the new host, and the larvae travel to the SC tissue,molt into L4s, eventually they move to the right ventricleandd pulmonaryarteries of the heart as L5s.
Theybecome L5 adults (either male or female) and reproduce, the females give birthto L1s (microfilaria), therefore repeating the cycle

Cause large cysts in liver, lungs, or other organs like the brain in humans

Echinococcus granulosus

Toxoplamsa gondii

Can cause birth defects and miscarriage.

Strongylus vulgaris

Large strongyle that sucks blood and causes anemia in horses. Also associated with thrombi in the mesententric artery of the horse.

Equine Protozoal Myelitis (EPM)

Illnss that Sacrocystis neurona causes in horses.

Pit bulls due to dog fighting, poor housing, and breeding conditions. Transmitted via bite wounds and transplacental/mammary

what Babesia gibsoni infects the most

Panacur

Medication that does not kill the flea tapeworm.

Medications used to treat tapeworms

Epsiprantel (Cestex)


Febendazole (Panacur, Safe Guard)


Praziquantel (Biticide)

Sarcopitc mange

Caused by Sarcoptes scabiei which can be passed from animal to animal and even to humans. It is a surface mite, burrowing into the skin amd causing a prurituc rash. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and superficial skin scrapings (remember pedal-pinnal reflex?)

Demodectic mange

Caused by demodex and is not contagious. It is part of the natural epidermal flora of many mammals but can over grow and cause clinical signs in young or immunocompromised animals. It can by diagnosed by perfuming a deep skin scrape on the animal.

Flea

IH for Dipylidium caninum

Reduviid bug (kissing bug)

IH Trypanosoma cruzi

Treatments/ preventative for tick infestation in dogs.

Nexgard, Frontline Tritak, Seresto, Preventic collars, Advantix, etc.

Flea life cycle.

Fleas lay up to 50 eggs per day and they hatch within 2-5 days to form larvae.
The larvae then feed off of flea dirt and debris in the environment.
Then they become pupae.
They can stay dormant in the environment or on your pet for up to 12 months.
The will most commonly emerge to be adult fleas within 1-4 weeks.

Sleeping sickness. Transmitted by tsetse fly between people.

Trpanosoma brucei

Equine Infectious Anemia virus or swamp fever

Virus horse flies transmit to other horses.

Why cochliomyia hominivorax is a reportatble disease.

Because this disease is no longer foundin the US routinely. It is an invader of clean, un contaminated wounds,can infect people and has huge economic and medical repercussions if it were tobecome common in our country again