Blood Disorders: Macrocytic-Hypochromic Anemia

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"Anemia is a reduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or a decrease in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin" (McCance & Huether, 2014, p.982). There are many causes of anemia and are classified in this manner. There are three classifications: macrocytic-normochromic anemia, microcytic-hypochromic anemia, and normocytic-normochromic anemia (McCance & Huether, 2014). Macrocytic-normochromic anemias encompass pernicious anemia and folate deficiency anemia (McCance & Huether, 2014). This type of anemia presents with large mature erythrocytes (McCance & Huether, 2014). The erythrocytes are produced in the marrow and when they are released, they are large in size, thickness and volume (McCance & Huether, 2014). However, …show more content…
Some examples of the causes of iron deficiency anemia are related to being a woman of childbearing age, pregnancy, blood loss, a lack of dietary iron, or a disruption in the gastrointestinal tract where iron cannot be absorbed (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2014). Women of child bearing age and those who are pregnant run the risk of becoming iron deficient because the blood stores of iron can become depleted with a growing fetus needing additional nutrients (Diseases and conditions, 2014). According to the Mayo Clinic, blood loss can cause iron deficiency by the loss of the blood itself, losing valuable red blood cells that contain iron (2014). Lastly, there are two dietary factors to consider in the case of iron deficiency: dietary intake and if there is a malabsorption dysfunction. The cause of the malabsorption can be related to bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2014). Adults with iron deficiency should be assessed for intestinal …show more content…
With Crohn's disease there is malsbsorption of nutrients due to the mucosal changes within the intestines lining (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2014). Also heavy drinking of alcohol impairs the absorption of folate, leading to a deficiency (Anemia, n.d.). Another cause of folate deficiency anemia is pregnancy. Like iron deficiency anemia, the added metabolic needs of a growing fetus can cause anemia (Anemia, n.d.). Lastly, Ignatavicius and Workman discuss that there are certain medications that can cause folate absorption problems (2014). "Anticonvulsants and oral contraceptives can slow or prevent the absorption and conversion of folic acid to its active form, leading to folic acid deficiency and anemia." (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2014,

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