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45 Cards in this Set

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the process of nourishing or being nourished, process by which a living organism takes in food and then uses it
What are four groups that the molecules and elements we need to take in as noursihment place in?
Water, energy sources, raw materials and metabolic regulators
Makes up over half of our bodies, drink water and get water from solid foods, we lose water through urination and evaporation from lungs
What are macronutrients?
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
A measure of energy content of the food
What does it mean to be undernourished?
A person does not have sufficient caloric intake
What does it mean to be malnourished?
Person can get enough calories, but fail to get the right balance of nutrients for raw materials and metabolic regulators
What is an example of raw materials that the body needs?
Need all 20 amino acids, which some are manufactured in the body, but the others are the essential amino acids that are supplied through diet, certain fatty acids are also essential (Polyunsaturated fatty acids)
What are some micronutrients?
Vitamins, coenzymes, and minerals- only needed in small quanitites because they primarily needed to play regulatory roles in metabolism
small molecules that are required by enzymes for their function, is changed by the reaction and requires a second enzyme/reaction to be used again
molecules that are required in relatively small quantities for life and many of them become parts of essntial coenzymes
What is the difference between water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins?
Water soluble= soluble in water because they are polar
Fat soluble= insoluble in water because they are non polar
Water soluble vitamins
B-Vitamins, Vitamin C and folic acid
not stored in the body and need to be supplied on a regular basis, if a large amount ingested, then what can't be stored will be lost in urine
Serve as coenzymes in important metabolic pathways
Fat soluble vitamins
vitamins A, D, E, and K
can be stored in the body because they can dissolve in fat deposits and remain there, high levels could be toxic
Vitamin C
Reducing agent, role is to keep the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase in its active form
Lack of Vitamin C causes...
Collagen is not made correctly and unable to carry out normal function. This leads to breakdown of tissues, swollen bleeding gums, sore and stiff joints, which are symptoms of scurvy
Vitamin D
Similar compounds derived from steroids by the action of ultraviolet light, required for proper metabolism of calcium and building of bone
What is rickets?
Lack of sunlight and lack of vitamin D from other sources leads to rickets, which is characterized by malformation of bones in children
Vitamin E
prevents carbon-carbon double bonds from being oxidized by molecular oxygen, maintains healthy cell membranes, prevents vitamin A from being oxidized
What does deficiency of vitamin E lead to?
Fragility of red blood cells and neruomuscular effects
Vitamin K
Role in blod clotting, modification of certain amino acid side chains in prothrombin and other clotting proteins (without, internal bleeding occurs), produced by microorganisms in our intestines
Inorganic substances, like salts, that are required in the body, serve as electrolytes and as components of bone, Examples include calcium, phosphate, sodium, etc and are needed in large amounts
needed in much smaller amounts, include iron, copper, and iodide,
Pyridine nucleotides
most common oxidation-reduction coenzymes and include NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH
What is the role of pyridine nucleotides?
play important role in all aspects of metabolism, function in carbohydrate metabolism and aerobic oxidative phosphorylation
Where does oxidation/reduction occur in the pyridine nucleotides?
In the nicotinamide ring
What portion of the NAD+ structure isn't synthesized by humans?
The pyridine ring structure, which is supplied as niacin from vitamin B3 (meat, poultry, milk, and green leafy vegetables)
Flavin Nucleotides
second group of oxidation/reduction coenzymes, resembles NAD+, but with a flavin ring
What is the function of flavin nucleotides?
Frequently associated with oxidation involving formation of a carbon-carbon double bond, less powerful reducing agent
What happens from a deficiency of riboflavin?
Inflammation of tongue, excessive secretions by the ebaceous glands in the skin, inflammation of the mucous lining of the mouth, swollen cracked and bright red lips and sensitivity to light
Cobalamine (Vitamin B12)
Cobalt atom at the center of the complex corrin ring system
Source of B12
Primary sources are the microorganisms that live in our intestines and consumption of meat
Role of B12
Involved in metabolic processes involving a shift of a hydrogen and another group between adjacent carbons, transfer of methy groups in order to produce thymine
Lack of B12
Disturbs DNA replication, which is first seen on maturation of RBCs
Pernicious anemia
a person that lacks the intrinsic factor that is needed to absorb vitamin B12
What is the role of thiamine pyrophosphate?
Involved in biochemical decarboxylations (Loss of CO2 from an acid)
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Has the same structure except that the 2 phospates are replaced by -OH (making it an alcohol)
Coenzyme A
Acyl group activator (Fatty acid synthesis and degradation), made in all organisms from dietary pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid (B5)
synthesized by most lower organisms
Functions of coenzyme A
A carrier and activator of acyl groups,
found in visual pigments, changes shape and that is the primary reaction in vision, associated with the protein opsin, that determines what color of light will cause the reaction, changes from "all-trans" version
Functions of vitamin A
Development and growth, maintenance of healthy skin and other epithelial tissues, role in vision
Deficiency of vitamin A
night blindness (inability to see in dim light) and can lead to blindness and other eye disorders
dervied from vitamin folic acid, participate in generation and utilization of single carbon functional groups, involved in metabolism of serine, glycine, and methionine amino acids
Folic acid deficiency
Causes anemia, major cause of spina bifida in women that have low folic acid