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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organic compounds vital to life and indispensable to body function, but only needed in small amounts
precursors, provitamins
compounds that can be converted into active vitamins
properties of vitamins
essential micronutrient, organic, non-caloric, most help regulate rxns as coenzymes
2 classes of vitamins
fat soluble and water soluble
the fat soluble vitamins
vitamins A, D, E, and K
fat soluble vitamins are absorbed with ____ and transported via ___
fat, lipoproteins
are excess fat soluble vitamins excreted in urine?
overdoses of fat soluble vitamins can cause this
length of time leading to deficiency of fat soluble vitamins
these vitamins are water soluble
B complex vitamins and Vitamin C
absorbed ____ into the bloodstream (except B12 which needs ____)
directly, intrinsic factor
are water soluble vitamins stored in the body?
not really
water soluble vitamins are usually not toxic unless ___
high doses are consumed
excess water soluble vitamins are _____
excreted in urine
frequency of water soluble vitamins needed in order to prevent deficiency
regular supply
characteristics of fat soluble vitamins
require bile for absorption, stored in fatty tissues, deficiencies caused by malabsorption disesases
(retinol) preformed vitamin A, antioxidant functions, can be toxic
(beta carotene) vitamin A precursor from plant products that is converted if necessary, antioxidant functions
functions of Vitamin A
visual abilities, cell growth & reproduction, immunity, epithelial tissue
Vitamin A deficiency
often seen in developing countries; blindness, infections, growth defects, exhaustion, death
Vitamin A toxicity
skin rashes, hair loss, hemorrhages, bone abnormalities & fractures, yellow skin, birth defects, liver failure, death
food sources of Vitamin A
milk, carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach and green leafy vegetables, liver, apricots
vitamin received from sun exposure
Vitamin D
functions of Vitamin D
maintains calcium levels, bone mineralization and regrowth; works in brain, heart, skin, reproductive organs
vitamin D deficiency in children; bones are too weak to support the body, bowing out of legs, knock knees, beaded ribs
vitamin D deficiency in adults, softening of bones, leads to fractures
vitamin D toxicity
most potentially toxic; extra calcium deposits where it doesn't belong (soft tissue), excessive thirst, headache, nausea
food sources of vitamin D
milk, salmon, shrimp, enriched foods
vitamin E
functions of vitamin E
works as an antioxidant to stop free radicals from destroying cell components, helps nerve development and immune system
vitamin E deficiency
very rare; erythrocyte hemolysis in preemies or fat malabsorption; impaired vision/speech, loss of muscle coordination
vitamin E toxicity
interferes with vitamin K and anticoagulation
food sources of vitamin E
safflower oil, canola oil, sunflower seeds, wheat germ
functions of vitamin K
synthesis of blood clotting proteins (prothrombin) and bone proteins
vitamin K deficiency
due to long term antibiotic use or in newborn babies; hemorrhage, abnormal bone formation
vitamin K toxicity
sometimes seen in infants or pregnant women; opposes effects of anti-clotting meds, jaundice
sources of vitamin K
50% comes from the intestinal tract; cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, canola oil, soybeans, lettuce
B - complex vitamins
Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, B12, B6 (Pyridoxine), Biotin, Panothenic Acid
reason to take extra water soluble vitamins
NONE, excreted in urine anyway
functions of vitamin C
produces and maintains collagen, enhances immune response, thyroxine regulation/production, helps produce carnitene (transports fatty acid), iron absorption
are vitamin C claims accurate?
mostly not
vitamin C deficiency, often seen in elderly, smokers, alcoholics, drug addicts, infants only fed cow's milk
symptoms of vitamin C deficiency
vitamin C toxicity
altered insulin response to carbs, nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, extreme gas, drug rxns
food sources of vitamin C
fresh fruits and veggies; orange juice, red and green peppers, broccoli, brussel sprouts, citrus fruits, sweet potato, strawberries
B vitamins are