Vitamin D Research Paper

Effect of Vitamin D in Bone Health
Introduction
One of important micronutrients for the maintenance of bone health is the vitamin D. Without enough vitamin D, bones can become weak and break, therefore the fracture risk increases. “In 2010 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that, vitamin D deficiency is not a problem for the majority of Americans. The most recent NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data on vitamin D status in the U.S. population published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) indicates that, based on IOM definitions of adequacy, two-thirds of the U.S. population had sufficient vitamin D, about one-quarter was at risk of vitamin D inadequacy and another 8% was at risk of vitamin D deficiency”(3,4).
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The vitamin D2 form (ergocalciferol) is found in some plants and can be chemically produced, also is used to fortify food. The vitamin D3 form (cholecalciferol) is found in humans and animals. In humans the sun or a synthetic light source is synthesized. The form available from animal foods such as fatty fish, egg yolks, and liver is the vitamin D3. Both Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 are biologically inactive, whether obtained through UVB exposure, diet or supplements. There is evidence vitamin D3 is better absorbed than vitamin D2. In the liver, the vitamin D is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], known as calcifidiol, and in the kidney it becomes the biologically active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] or calcitriol. Calcitriol is a hormone that promotes active intestinal calcium and phosphate transport to be used for bone formation and remodeling …show more content…
There are other micronutrients that also are important in the bone health as phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin K, among others. The effects of vitamin D on bone cannot be considered in isolation from other components of the diet. Researches have shown that vitamin D influences bone mass density. In opinion of Institute of Medicine in 2010, vitamin D deficiency is not a public health problem and on the contrary, according to American Journal of Clinical Nutrition osteoporosis and low bone mass are estimated to be a major public health threat. In spite of daily vitamin D recommendations, it is essential for those individuals who have risk factors to evaluate vitamin D serum levels and bone density. We can improve the bone health with an adequate diet and sufficient vitamin D intakes through dairy or fortified foods. A diet chronically low in vitamin D combines with insufficient sunlight exposure over time can lead to vitamin D deficiency. People with diets that restrict their intake of vitamin D-rich foods, such as those with dairy allergies, lactose intolerance, or ovo-vegetarian and vegan diets or people with liver or kidney diseases, are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. I consider it is important to check vitamin D serum levels (25OH-D) since this vitamin is primordial for the calcium absorption and the treatment varies according to the vitamin D serum level. Supplemental vitamin D

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