Vitamin D Synthesis

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Introduction
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids which is responsible for improving the intestinal absorption of inorganic ions such as calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium, phosphate. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) are most vital compounds in the human being. Vitamin D is not actually a vitamin, but a steroid hormone formed in the body when the skin is exposed to sunbeams, mainly ultraviolet B light (UVB) rays22. The compound vitamin D has been found in organisms that are more than 500 million years old, including phytoplankton (Emiliania huxleyi), and diatoms (Skeletonema menxelii), which can endogenously synthesize vitamin D (ergosterol, or vitamin D2).Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with pleiotropic
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Vitamin D2 was chemically characterized in 1931. In 1935, the chemical structure of vitamin D3 was established and proven to result from the ultraviolet irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol.23 Vitamin D exists naturally in two major forms which differ in their side chain structure. Vitamin D2 (“ergocalciferol,” or pre-vitamin D) chemically known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2. Vitamin D2 is derived from plant and fungal sources. Vitamin D3 (“cholecalciferol”) chemically known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. This two forms vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) collectively known as Calciferol. Vitamin D3 is the biologically active derived from animal sources and is produced in skin exposed to ultraviolet (UVB) radiation from the sun. Vitamin D3 is the more potent form of vitamin D, which has a potential benefit. Vitamin D3 is more stable on the shelf compared to vitamin D2 and is remained more active for a longer period of time when exposed to different conditions. Vitamin D3 is more effective at raising and maintaining the vitamin D blood test. Chemically, the different forms of vitamin D are lipophil secosteroids, i.e., steroids in which one of the bonds of the steroid rings is broken. Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 has structural different at the side chain of D2 contains a methyl group on carbon 24 and a double bond between carbons 22 and 23.Chemically different types of vitamin D are vitamin D1 (Mixture of molecular compounds of ergocalciferol with lumisterol, 1:1) vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol (made from ergosterol),vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol (made from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin),vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol),vitamin D5 (sitocalciferol made from 7-dehydrositosterol)24. Severe vitamin D deficiency causes several bone pathologies like rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Fetal Vitamin D exposure depends on maternal vitamin D status.25 Vitamin D plays a vital role in fetal development, and deficiency

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