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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Commonly Required Macrominerals
• Calcium (Ca2+)
• Potassium (K+)
• Magnesium (Mg2+)
• Phosphorus PO43-)
• Sodium (Na+)
• Sulfur (S-)
• Chlorine (Cl-)
Commonly Required Microminerals or Trace Minerals
• Iron (Fe2+,3+)
• Manganese (Mn2+)
• Copper
• Zinc
• Iodine
• Cobalt
• Selenium
• Minerals that are required in minute amounts and are almost never deficient
- Aluminum (Al) - Boron (B)
- Chromium (Cr) - Nickel (Ni)
- Silicon (Si) - Tin (Sn)
- Vanadium (V)
• Minerals that are required in minute amounts but are more commonly considered toxic
- Arsenic (As) - Barium (Ba)
- Molybdenum (Mo) - Bromine (Br)
- Flourine (F) - Lithium (Li)
- Cadmium (Cd)
- Lead (Pb)
• Minerals that are not required and are commonly considered toxic:
- Mercury (Hg)
A. Functions of Ca2+
1. Bone - Ca, PO4, F Hydroxyapatite
2. Muscle contractions and nerve conduction (Ca ATP ase)
3. Enzyme activators
4. Cellular intermediary (second messenger)
5. Blood clotting
B. Tissue Distribution
1. Skeleton-crystallized, non-exchangeable bone
2. Exchangeable bone
3. Blood, tissue fluids-plasma Ca is 50% free ion
Ca2+ Homeostasis
1. Absorption – both facilitated and active
2. Excretion – urine, sweat, feces
3. Ca-regulatory hormones
– PTH, Calcitonin, Calcitriol
4. Blood Ca2+ control
5. Signs of Hypocalcemia: tetany (“milk fever”, “parturient paresis”)
D. Dietary calcium deficiency
1. Calcium to Phosphorus ratio is not very important but Ca should exceed P

2. Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
• Big Head Disease
• Distorted snout

3. Signs of Diet Deficiency
a. Rickets – failure of bone mineralization while growing
b. Osteomalacia – poor mineralization or mineral loss in an adult (adult-onset rickets)
c. Osteoporosis – loss of mineral coupled with loss of bone protein matrix
E. Ca Requirement:
.2 - 4%
G. Ca in feedstuffs
1. Legume forages-high in Ca; grains-low
2. mineral supplements:
3. animal byproducts: meat and bone meal, fishmeal
Phosphorus Functions
1. Bone formation (with Ca2+, Vit D)
2. Energy metabolism (ATP)
3. Regulatory molecules - Protein kinase and phosphatases
4. Blood or intracellular buffers (pK of phosphate is 6.8) HPO4-2 ↔ H2PO4-1 pK = 6.8
5. Role in reproduction ?
C. Phosphourous Homeostasis
1. Absorption
2. Excretion
3. Regulatory hormones: PTH, calcitriol
D. Deficiency signs for P
1. Rickets
2. Osteomalacia
3. Osteoporosis
4. Pica: abnormal appetite
5. Reduced fertility in cattle and sheep
P requirements
.15 - .5%
P toxicity
• not a problem, but too much P can increase requirement for Ca
• too much P – environmental concern
G. Phosphorus in feedstuffs
1. Grains - well supplied with P, but 60% is in phytate form
• Phytate, phytic acid, phytin - can be made available with use of enzyme phytase
- phytate forms chelates with other minerals and can cause other deficiencies
- phytase -- may help decrease P in animal wastes (esp. aquaculture)
- read pages 172-173 of text; see Figure 11.6
2. Forages – often need some P supplementation
3. Supplemental Sources: (often the most expensive mineral to supplement)
• most common form = Dicalcium phosphate
• Monosodium phoshpate
• Steamed bone meal, Deflourinated rock phosphate
Magnesium Functions:
1. Enzyme cofactor (mitochondrial ATP metabolism, protein synthesis)
2. Bone formation
3. Ionized mineral in some tissues
Mg deficiency signs
1. Grass Tetany orstaggers: hypomagnesence tetany
2. Unthrifty animals, poor performance, anorexia
Mg requirement
Mg toxicity
at ~0.4%  alters Ca, P metabolism, causes diarrhea
Mg sources
1. Widely spread in nature; abundant but bioavailability of dietary Mg can be low
2. Dolomite Limestone (high in Mg, this can be a problem)
3. Most common supplements: Mg oxide, Mg Sulfate
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride Functions
1. Osmoregulation --cellular integrity - gives structure to cells

2. Acid Base Balance: Na+, K+, Cl-, HC03-

3. Ion transport and conduction --- Na - K - ATPase (Pump)
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride tissue distribution
1. Na+ Major extracellular cation
2. K+ Major intracellular cation
3. Cl- Major extracellular anion
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride deficiencies
1. signs of deficiency
• general malaise, unthrifty
• poor osmotic regulation-dehydrated
• no clear signs of electrolyte deficiencies
2. occurrence of deficiencies:
• heat stress
• strenuous exercise
• diarrhea
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride requirements
• K: 0.3 - 1%
• Na: 0.1 - 0.2%
• Cl: 0.1 - 0.25%
G. Electrolytes in feeds
1. Potassium
• low in cereal grains
• high in most Michigan forages
• can be supplemented with KCl

2. Sodium and Chloride
• low in most feeds, but high in some water (thumb of MI)
• easily supplemented with salt (NaCl), which is 40% Na, 60% Cl
Sulfur Functions
1. Component of many organic compounds, and hence functions in protein, lipid, and CHO metabolism, connective tissue and blood clotting

2. Minor role in acid-base balance
B. Deficiency signs for S
• Inorganic S is not required by animal tissues but S-containing AA and vitamins are required. Lack of these will depress growth.
S requirement
Requirement: 0.1 - 0.2%

Toxic at 0.4% - 0.5%
E. Sources of sulfur
1. S-containing AA and S-containing vitamins
2. In general, if protein requirement is met, S requirement will be met
3. Supplemental Sources: CaSO4 (gypsum) for ruminants fed NPN
rule of thumb: add 1 part gypsum per 5 parts urea
Copper (Cu2+, Cu+) Function
• Cofactor in many enzymes
• Mitochondrial electron transport
• Maintenance of connective tissue and blood vessels
• Bone formation, connective tissue integrity/cross-linking
• Integrity of central nervous system (CNS)
• Red cell formation
Copper Absorption and Metabolism
not very efficient, stored with copper containing proteins, especially in the liver
Copper deficiency
• Anemia
• Ataxia, nervous degeneration (Swayback, Falling disease)
• Degeneration of blood vessels -- spontaneous bursting of the aorta (Poultry)
• Depigmentation (Melanin synthesis)
• Diarrhea, abnormal joint-ligament/cartilage impairment
• Steely wool
copper requirement
3 - 10 ppm
copper toxicity
toxic at 25 - 100 ppm, but differs with species Tolerance ratio = 5:1
-- hemolytic crisis (hemolysis, jaundice, and death)
iron function
• Hemoglobin and myoglobin: O2 transport and availability
• Electron transport chain in the mitochondria (cytochromes)
• Metalloenzymes
Iron absoprtion
• Absorption is not efficient, but iron is recycled efficiently in the body
• Stored in Ferritin, Transferrin, Myoglobin, Fe-proteins
• Body holds on to Fe tenaciously
• Only way to lose much iron is with blood loss
iron deficiency
• Anemia:
• Fe-deficiency anemia: microcytic anemia  hypochromic anemia (end stage)
• Thumps/Respiratory Insufficiency
• Unthrifty, poor growth
• Susceptibility to Fe deficiency: piglets born in indoors
6. Sources of iron
• Bioavailabilty varies -- “heme” iron is more available than other sources and increases the absorption of non-heme iron
• Milk
• Grains, forages
• Soil
• Injections of Fe - Dextran for young pigs
• Oral supplementation
Manganese (Mn) Function
cofactor/activator of enzyme systems for
• Mitochondrial metabolism -- oxidative phosphorylation
• formation of organic matrix of bone
• protein, fatty acid, and cholesterol metabolism
Mn deficiency
• Poultry - perosis (slipped tendon)
• CNS - degeneration - ataxia
• Bone malformation
Zinc Functions
• Metallo enzymes --- cofactor/activator of several enzyme systems
• Nucleic acid proteins
Zinc deficiency
• Poor appetite, growth retardation, poor fertility
• Pigs: parakeratosis-thickening of epithelial cells
• Poultry - hyperkeratosis
5. Zinc sources
• Forages have plenty, grains are low
• TM salt
cobalt function
component of vitamin B12 so bacteria need it to make B12
cobalt deficiency
• Lack of appetite, tissue wasting, anemia
• Improper propionic acid metabolism
• Particular problem in northern Michigan: Grand Traverse Disease
Iodine function
Synthesis of thyroid hormones ---- T4 (Thyroxine) and T3 (tri-iodo-thyronine)
- structure of thyroxin is on page 189 of text
iodine deficiency
• Hypothyroidism --- impaired energy metabolism -- lowered metabolic rate
• Deficiency in maternal diet causes stillbirths and weak, hairless neonate
• Deficiency in adult causes goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)
Selenium functions
• Antioxidant: component of glutathione peroxidase
• involved in Vitamin E metabolism
• Many selenoproteins and metalloenzymes (see Table 12.7 of text)
Se Toxicity
toxic at 2-5 ppm Tolerance ratio = 10:1
• Alkali disease
• Blind staggers
• Can counteract with arsenic
6. Sources of Se
• TM salt
• Special premixes (Se-200 is 200 mg/kg = 200 ppm)
• Injectable Se, by prescription only
Molybdenum (Mo) Function
Unclear, but needed in xanthine oxidase (also needed in plants)
Mo Toxicity
occurs at ~6 ppm
• occurs commonly with organic soils with high pH
• Interferes with Cu metabolism
• Diarrhea (Profuse and Stinky!) – “peat scours”, “teart scours”
• Depressed growth, emaciation
deficiency or toxicity causes chalky, mottled teeth
added to drinking water for humans in the US to prevent dental cavies (tooth decay)
• Chelated minerals
have increased bioavailability but usually not worth the added expense
-natural chelates
• Vitamin A precursor
• Beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A in the small intestine or liver
• Vitamin D precursors
• Ergosterol  uv light  ergocalciferol

• Cholesterol  7-dehyrocholesterol  cholecalciferol
• Activation of vitamin D
Calciferol  25-hydroxycalciferol  1,25-dihydroxycalciferol
Vitamin Stability
• many vitamins are susceptible to one of the following:
• heat (eg.: folic acid)
• light (eg.: riboflavin)
• oxidation (eg.: vitamin E)
• some just gradually degrade in solution (vitamin C)
• some of the more stable ones are niacin, thiamin, pantothenic acid
Vitamin bioavailibility
• availability of fat-soluble vitamins is increased by fat in the diet
• sometimes, some vitamins are tightly bound to plant other compounds and not very available (eg.: niacin in corn)
Selenium and Vitamin E: the major antioxidants
• Lipid peroxides result in harmful “free radicals” that damage cells.
• Vitamin E (fat soluble) prevents formation of lipid peroxides.
• Se is a cofactor for glutathione peroxidase (water soluble), an enzyme that destroys lipid peroxides once they form.
• During marginal Vitamin E status, adequate Se is more critical than during good Vitamin E status.
Other compounds with anti-oxidant properties
• carotene (fat-soluble)
• other carotenoids: lycopene in tomatoes, watermelon
• vitamin C (water-soluble).
• other phenolic compounds
• flavonoids (also plant pigments)
o procyanidins in dark chocolate
o proanthocyanidins in grapes, cranberries
o catechin in tea
o resveratrol in grapes/red wine
-Vision (requires retinol or retinal; retinoic acid does not help)

-Maintenance of epithelial cells (lining of digestive, repro tracts)


-Bone formation

Night Blindness

Epithelial cell degeneration

Calf scours

Lusterless skin Green forages
Fish oils
Vit A acetate or palmitate
-Bone formation-mineralization

-Ca absorption from the gut Osteomalacia-softening of bone (adult onset rickets, loss of minerals)

Osteoporosis-loss of bone mass (both mineral and organic matter)

Rickets-poor bone mineralization in young

Posterior paralysis in sows
Soft egg shells Plant products containing Ergosterol
Animal products containing cholest.
A-D feeding oil
-Anti-oxidant (lipid-soluble)-need more vitamin E with dients that are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)

-protects vitamin A against oxidation

-muscle structure/color

Muscle degeneration-white muscle disease

Liver necrosis-damaged membranes

Encephalomalacia-softening of the brain
-ataxia-incoordination, paralysis

Exudative diathesis-sores d
Green growing plants, wheat germ oil,
Hemorrhaging -
prolonged clotting time Menadione
(only needed in poultry)