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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Visual Impairment
a difficulty in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness
Auditory Impairment
a special need that involves the loss or hearing or some aspect of hearing
Speech Impairment
speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker
Stuttering
substantial disruption in the rhythm of fluency of speech; the most common speech impairment
Learning Disabilities
difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities
Dyslexia
a reading disability that can result in the misperception of letters during reading and writing, unusual difficulty in sounding out letters, confusion between left and right, and difficulties spelling
ADHD
acronym for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity
Concrete Operational Stage
the period of cognitive development between ages 7-12, which is characterized by the active, and appropriate, use of logic
Decentering
the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account
Reversibility
the notion that processes transforming a stimulus can be reversed, returning it to its original form
Informational Processing approaches
children become increasingly sophisticated in their handling of information
Memory
the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved
Metamemory
an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood
Control Strategies
conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing
Keyword Strategy
one word is paired with another word that sounds like it or is easily associated with it
Cooperative Learning
in which children work together in groups to achieve a common goal
Reciprocal Teaching
is a technique to teach reading comprehension strategies; emphasizes on giving students a change to take the role of the teacher
Intonation
the inflection and tone of voice
Pragmatics
the rules governing the use of language to communicate in a given social setting
Metalinguistic Awareness
an understanding of one’s own use of language
Bilingualism
the use of more than one language
Bilingual Education
in which children are initially taught in their native language, while at the same time learning English
Code-Based Approach to Reading
belief that reading should be taught by presenting the basic skills that underlie it; phonics, compound words
Multicultural Education
a form of education in which the goal is to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures
Developmental Diversity
discusses how the goals for educating students from different cultures have changed significantly over the years and are being debated today
Cultural Assimilation Model
a model that fostered the view of American society as the proverbial melting pot
Pluralistic Society Model
the concept that American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features
Bicultural Identity
maintaining one’s original cultural identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture
Intelligence
the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges
Mental Age
the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age
Chronological/Physical Age
the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test
Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition
acronym SB

for a test that consists of a serious of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested 5
Intelligence Quotient
acronym IQ Score

for a measure of intelligence that takes into account a student’s mental and chronological age
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition
acronym WISC-IV

for a test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (non-verbal) skills, as well as a total score
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition
acronym KABC-II

for an intelligence test that measures children’s ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and step-by-step thinking
Fluid Intelligence
intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
Crystallized Intelligence
the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations
Dynamic Assessment
Vygotsky’s belief that assessment tasks should involve cooperative interaction between the individual who is being assessed and the person who is doing the assessment
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
a model that states that intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing:

the componential element,

the experimental element,
the contextual element
Componential Aspect of Intelligence
reflects how efficiently people can process and analyze information
Experiential Element Intelligence
the insightful component; compare new material with what they already know and can combine and relate facts that they already know in novel and creative ways
Contextual Element of Intelligence
the practical element; ways of dealing with the demands of the everyday environment
Least Restrictive Environment
the setting that is most similar to that of children without special needs
Mainstreaming
an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives
Full-Inclusion
is the integration of all students, even those with the most severe disabilities, into regular classes and eliminates ‘special needs programs’
Mental Retardation
a significantly sub-average level of intellectual functioning that occurs with related limitations in two or more skill areas
Mild Retardation
retardation in which IQ scores fall in the range of 50-70
Moderate Retardation
retardation in which IQ scores range around 35-55
Severe Retardation
retardation in which IQ scores range from around 20-40
Profound Retardation
retardation in which IQ scores fall below 25
Gifted and Talented
children who show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership capacity, or specific academic fields
Acceleration
special programs that allow gifted students to more ahead at their own pace, even if this means skipping to higher grade levels
Enrichment
an approach through which students are kept at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic
Industry vs. inferiority Stage
is the period from ages 6-12 years characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and other complexities of the modern world
Social Comparison
the desire to evaluate one’s own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to those of others
Social Reality
refers to understanding that is derived from how others act, think, feel, and view the world
Downward Social Comparison
refers to comparing oneself to others that are obviously less competent or successful
Self-Esteem
individual’s overall specific positive or negative self-evaluation
Social Identity Theory
members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is a little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between groups
Status
the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group
Social Competence
the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings
Social Problem-Solving
the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others
Dominance Hierarchy
rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group
Coregulation
a period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior
Sibling Rivalry
siblings competing or quarreling with one another
Self-Care Children/Latchkey Children
children who let themselves into their homes after and wait alone until their caretakers return from work
Blended Families
a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them
Role Ambiguity
in which roles, responsibilities, and expectations of a relationship are unclear
Group Home or Residential Treatment Center
group homes for children whose parents are no longer able to care for them adequately
Attributions
people’s explanations for the reasons behind their behavior
Teacher Expectancy Effect
the cycles of behavior in which a teacher transmits an expectation about a child and actually brings about the expected behavior
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
in which a person’s expectation is capable of brings about an outcome
Emotional Intelligence
the set of skills that underlies the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions