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38 Cards in this Set

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What are some types of disabilities?

-Learning disabilities


-ADHD


-Autism


-Speech/hearing impairment


-Intellectual


-Physical

Dyslexia

Severe impairment in the ability to read and spell

Dysgraphia

Difficulty in handwriting

Dyscalculia

Developmental arithmetic disorder

ADHD

-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


-Possible Causes:


~Genetics


~Brain damage during prenatal or postnatal development


~Cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development


~Low birth weight

ASD

-Autism spectrum disorders


-Range from autistic disorder to Asperger syndrome

Autistic disorder

-Onset in the first three years of life


-Deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior

Asperger syndrome

-Good verbal language skills


-Milder nonverbal language problems


-Restricted range of interests and relationships

Public Law 94-142 (1975):

-The Education for All Handicapped Children Act


-All children w/ disabilities are to receive a free, appropriate public education

IDEA (1990)

-Individuals with Disabilities Education Act


-Evaluation, eligibility determination, IEP, LRE

IEP

-Individualized Education Plan


-Written statement that is specifically tailored for the disabled student

LRE

-Least Restrictive Environment


-Setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which non-disabled children are educated

Inclusion

Educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom

Cognitive Changes

-Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory


-Information processing


-Intelligence

Concrete operational stage

-Ages 7 to 11


-Children can perform concrete operations and reason logically, and are able to classify things into different sets

Seriation

Ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension

Transitivity

Ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions

Evaluating Piaget’s concrete operational stage

-Concrete operational abilities do not appear in synchrony


-Education and culture exert strong influences on children’s development

Neo-Piagetians

-Argue that Piaget got some things right but that his theory needs considerable revision


-Elaborated on Piaget’s theory, giving more emphasis to:How children use attention, memory, and strategies to process information

Individual differences

Stable, consistent ways in which people differ from each other

Mental age (MA)

Individual’s level of mental development relative to others

IQ

-Intelligence quotient


-Person’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100

Normal distribution

-Symmetrical distribution


-Most scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores


-Few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range

Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence

-Analytical intelligence


-Creative intelligence


-Practical intelligence

Gardner’s 8 frames of mind

1-Verbal


2-Mathematical


3-Spatial


4-Bodily-kinesthetic


5-Musical


6-Interpersonal


7-Intrapersonal


8-Naturalist

Interpreting differences in IQ scores

-Influences of genetics


-Environmental influences


-Group differences

Culture-fair tests

Designed to be free of cultural bias

Mental retardation

Limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ and has difficulty adapting to everyday life

Organic retardation

Caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage

Cultural-familial retardation

No evidence of organic brain damage

IQ is generally between ?

50 and 70

KOHLBERG

Three Levels and Six Stages of Moral Development

Influences on Kohlberg’s stages

-Experiences dealing with moral questions/conflicts


-Peer interaction and perspective taking are crucial

Kohlberg’s critics

-Moral thought and behavior


~Too much emphasis on thought, not enough emphasis on behavior


-Culture and moral reasoning


~Theory is culturally biased


-Families and moral development


-Kohlberg underestimatedGender and the care perspective

Who's your favorite?

Ivan is and he's daddy af


I love you


and you got this!



pre-conventional level 1

decisions based on reward and punishment


1. fear punishment


2. equal exchange:you can play with my truck if i can read your book

conventional level 2

decision based on standards set by others


3. adopt parents standards: "good girl"


4. adopt society's standards: "laws"

post-conventional level 3

explore alternatives and decide personal moral


5. law is important butdoes social system protect human rights and values


6. conscience or law