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67 Cards in this Set

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approximately 10-18 years (or from puberty to when the individual becomes relatively independent). the transitional period between childhood and adulthood that begins with puberty and involves significant physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes
age effects
the relationship between age and a particular aspect of development.
age grade
each socially defined age group in a society. also called an age stratum. each is assigned different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities. Each culture defines these different groups differently.
age norms
expectations of what people should and shouldn't do within an age grade. They're society's way of telling people how to act their age.
involves more than biological aging. it refers to a range of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes, positive and negative, in the mature organism.
baby biographies
When scholars carefully observe the growth and development of their own children and publish their findings in the form of baby biographies. They emphasized different aspects of their children's behavior. These were basically subjective observations from the parents' perspectives. It was also based on a single child from a distinguished family. This led to collecting more objective data from a larger sample of individuals
baby boom generation
the huge cohort born after WWII between 1946 and 1964. had more traditional gender roles. fewer women worked outside the home, and more parents dressed and treated girls and boys differently.
biological aging
the deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitably to their death
case study
an in-depth examination of an individual (or a small number of individuals), typically carried out by compiling and analyzing information from a variety of sources, such as observation, testing, and interviewing the person or people who know her. It can provide rich info about the complexities of an individual's development and the influences on it. It is particularly useful in studying people with rare conditions, disorders, and developmental experiences when it is not possible to assemble a large sample of people to study or when an unusual case can say something important about typical development.
a person who is 100 or more years old
includes environmental events, transitions over the life course, and sociohistorical circumstances.
a group of individuals born at the same time, either in the same year or within a specified span of of years
cohort effects
the effects of being born as a member of a particular cohort or generation in a particular historical context
researchers have an ethical responsibility to keep confidential the information they collect.
correlation coefficient
an index of the extent to which individuals' scores on one variable are systematically associated with their scores on another variable. It can range in value from -1.00 to +1.00.
correlational method
involves determining whether two or more variables are related in a systematic way. Researchers do not randomly assign participants to treatment conditions and manipulate the independent variable as in an experiment. Researchers take people as they are and attempt to determine whether there are relationships among their experiences, characteristics, and developmental outcomes. a limitation to this method is it cannot unambiguously be establish a causal relationship between one variable and another the way an experiment can. Correlational studies can only suggest that a causal relationship exists.
cross-sectional design
the performances of people of different age groups, or cohorts are compared.
Researchers don't always tell the purpose of the study in advance so explain the purpose after the study.
dependent variable
the behavior expected to be affected
Systematic changes and continuitites in the individual that occur between conception and death; "womb to tomb". involves gains, losses, neutral changes, and continuities in each phase of the life span, growth and aging are a part of it.
directionality problem
the direction of the cause-effect relationship could be the reverse of what the researcher thinks it is. That is, exposure to baby videos may not cause infants to be delayed in language development; rather slow language development could cause video viewing.
emerging adulthood
a transitional period between adolescence and full-fledge adulthood that extends from about age 18 to age 25 (and maybe as late as 29). Tend to explore identities; lead unstable lives filled with job changes, new relationships, and moves; are self-focused, relatively free of obligations to others, and therefore free to focus on their own psychological needs; feel in between—adultlike in some ways but not others; and believe they have limitless possibilities ahead. Basically a transition state
all the external physical and social conditions, stimuli, and events that can affect us, from crowded living quarters and polluted air, to social interactions with family members, peers, and teachers, to the neighborhood and broader cultural context in which we develop
ethics (research)
the standards of conduct that investigators are ethically bound to honor to protect their research participants form physical or psychological harm. The investigators ethical responsibilities boil down to respecting the rights of research participants by allowing them to freely give their informed consent, debriefing them afterward if they are not told everything in advance or are deceived, protecting them from harm, and treating any info they provide as confidential
people's classification or affiliation with a group based on common heritage or traditions
the belief that one's own group and its culture are superior. These can creep into research designs, procedures, and measures and cause results to be biased or misleading.
evidence-based practice
ground today's educators and human service and health professionals in research and ensuring that the curricula and treatments that are provided have been demonstrated to be effective.
an investigator manipulates or alters some aspect of the environment to see how this affects the behavior of the sample of individuals studied.
experimental control
all factors other than the independent variable are controlled or held constant so that they cannot contribute to differences among the treatment groups.
functional magnetic resonance imaging. a brain-scanning technique that uses magnetic forces to measure the increase in blood flow to an area of the brain that occurs when that brain area is active.
the hereditary material passed from parents to child at conception
the study of aging and old age
the physical changes that occur form conception to maturity
specific predictions regarding a particular set of observations
independent variable
the variable manipulated so that its causal efffects can be assessed
informed consent
researchers should inform potential participants of all aspects of the research that might affect their decision to participate so that they can make a voluntary decision based on full knowledge of what the research involves. Those who can't make adequate informed decisions need to inform those who take care of the individual. Can't pressure anyone into participating and must respect the participant's right to refuse to participate, to drop out during the study, and to refuse to have their data used by the investigator.
the process through which experience brings about relatively permanent changes in thoughts, feelings, or behavior.
life expectancy
the average number of years a newborn who is born now can be expected to live.
life-span perspective
the perspective on the human development where the themes include development being a lifelong process, is multidirectional, involves both gains and losses, is characterized by lifelong plasticity, is shaped by its historical-cultural contex, multiply influenced, must be sutdied by multiple disciplines. (Baltes)
longitudinal design
one cohort of individuals is assessed repeatedly over time. it provides information about age changes rather than age differences. limitations include how culture changes could affect cohort of individuals and how they interact with things in society. Can't take into account the new technologies that come out and account for them to prevent people from using them. It could have tremendous impacts on the study. It's also very costly.
the biological unfolding of the individual according to a blueprint contained in the genes
When different kinds of studies converge and overlap in their data. They show the same relationship and so they are reliable, although small, and have an average correlation between the two, between +.10 and +.30. The findings can be more confident because of the assumption that the quality of the studies that went into the meta-analysis is high.
Generation Y or the baby boom-let. cohort born between 1982 to 2004. less committed to work and more interested in freedom and personal fulfillment than baby boomers
naturalistic observation
observing people in their everyday, natural surroundings. Can be observed in homes, schools, playgrounds, workplaces, nursing homes, or wherever people are going about their lives. It is mainly used to study child development more often than adult development, largely because infants and young children often cannot be studied through self report techniques that demand verbal skills. It is the only data collection technique that can reveal what children or adults do in everyday life.
nature–nurture issue
the question of how biological forces and environmental forces act and interact to make us what we are
it is the fourth goal of developmental science. how can humans be helped to develop in positive directions? how can their capacities be enhanced, how can developmental difficulties be prevented, and how can any developmental problems that emerge be overcome? pusuing the goal of optimizing development might involve evaluating ways to stimulate intellectual growth in preschool programs, to prevent binge drinking among college students, or to support elderly adults after the death of a spouse.
the capactiy to change in response to experience, whether positive or negative.
a well-defined group that is generalized from a sample.
random assignment
putting participants in different groups randomly by drawing out of a hat. This random assignment helps make sure that the study isn't rigged. uncontrolled diffferences between two groups could influence the results of the study.
random sample
a sample formed by identifying all members of the larger population and then, by a random means (such as drawing names blindly), selecing a portion of that population to study.
research ethics
the standards of conduct that investigators are ethically bound to honor to protect their research participants form physical or psychological harm. The investigators ethical responsibilities boil down to respecting the rights of research participants by allowing them to freely give their informed consent, debriefing them afterward if they are not told everything in advance or are deceived, protecting them from harm, and treating any info they provide as confidential
rite of passage
a ritual that marks a person's "passage" from one status to another, usually in reference to the transition from childhood to adulthood. Can involve different types of rituals like body painting, circumcision, instruction by elders in adult sexual practices, tests of physical prowess, and gala celebrations.
the group of individuals studied.
scientific method
both method and an attitude. a belief that investigators should allow their systematic observations (or data) to determine the merits of their thinking. it involves a process of generating ideas and testing them by making observations. Often preliminary observations provide ideas for a theory. These theories generate specific predictions or hypotheses
sequential design
combines the cross-sectional approach and the longitudinal approach in a single study. Various cohorts tested every couple of years to create a longitudinal design.
social clock
a person's sense of when things should be done and when he or she is ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms. Basically seeing all of my friends getting married/having babies and realizing I'm not there yet, and I'm a little behind. Affects how easily people adjust to life transitions. Normal life events can affect people more negatively based on if they are "off time" as opposed to "on time"
socioeconomic status (SES)
standing in society based on such indicators as occupational prestige, education, and income
storm and stress
a time of emotional ups and downs and rapid changes; a tempestuous period of a life span that typically occurs during adolescence
structured observation
create special stimuli, tasks, or situations designed to elicit the behavior of interest.
a set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain certain phenomena. A good theory is internally consisten, falsifiable, supported by data.
third variable problem
A rival interpretation in correlational studies that is when the association between the two variables of interest may be caused by some third variable.
time of measurement effects
the effects of historical events and trends occuring when the data are collected (traumatic events or advances in healthcare) in longitudinal studies, age effects and time of measurement effects are confounded.
What are the three types of development?
physical, cognitive, and pscyhosocial
What is physical development?
the growth of the body and its organs. physical signs of aging, changes in motor abilities, and so on.
What is cognitive development?
changes and continuities in perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, and other mental processes
What is psychosocial development?
Changes and carryover in personal and interpersonal aspects of development, such as motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills and relationships, and roles played in the family and in the larger society
What are the goals driving the study of life-span development?
describing, predicting, explaining, and optimizing development