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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Processes involved in thinking and metnal activity, such as attention, memory, and problem solving
sensorimotor stage
In Piagetian theory, the first stage of cognitive development, from birth to approximately two years of age, in which thought is based primarily on action
means-ends behavior
Deliberate behavior employed to attain a goal
object concept
Realization that objects exist even when they are not within view. Also called object permanence
preoperational stage
In Piagetitan theory, the second stage of development, from approximately two to seven years of age, in which thought becomes symbolic in form.
Preoperational child's inability to separate his or her own perspective from those of others
conservation tasks
Problems that require the child to make judgments about the equivalence of two displays; used to assess stage of cognitive development
In Piagetian theory, the ability to mentally reverse or negate an action or a transformation
focus on states
Preoperational child's tendency to treat two or more connected events as unrelated
concrete operational stage
In Piagetian theory, the third stage of development, from approximately seven to eleven years of age, in which thought is logical when stimulu are physically present.
In Piagetian theory, a mental action such as reversibility
formal operational stage
In Piagetian theory, the last stage of development, from approximately eleven to fifteen years of age, inn which thought in abstract and hypothetical
hypothetical reasoning
Ability to systematically generate and evaluate potential solutions to a problem
imaginary audience
Individual's belief that others are examining and evaluating him or her
personal fable
Belief that one is unique and perhaps even invulnerable
Definition of a set of information ont he basis of some general or abstract principle
core knowledge hypothesis
The idea that infants possess innate knowledge of certain properties of objects
Attribution of lifelike qualities to inanimate objects
Belief that naturally occuring events are caused by people
natural domains
Concepts or categories that children acquire especially rapidly and effortlessly
one-to-one correspondence
Understanding that two sets are equivalent in number if each element in one set can be mapped onto a unique element in the second set with none left over
Principle that the last number in a set of counted numbers refers to the number of items in that set
Principle that a number refers to an item's order within a set
Distinctive location or cue that the child uses to negotiate or represent a spatial environment
perspective taking
Ability to take the role of another person and understand what that person is thinking, is feeling, or knows.
theory of mind
Awareness of the concept of mental states, both one's own and those of others
Inability to distinguish between mental and physical entities
Temporary aid provided by one person to encourage, support, and assist a lesser-skilled person in carrying out a task or completing a problem. The model provides knowledge and skills that are learned and gradually transferred to the learner.
zone of proximal development
Range of various kinds of support and assistance provided by an expert (usually an adult) who helps children to carry out activities they currently cannot complete but will later be able to accomplish independently.
Mutual attention and shared communication that take place between child and caregiver or learner and expert