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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Cephalocaudal Principal

growth follows direction and pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds to the rest of the body

Proximodistal Principal

development proceeds from the center of the body outwards

Principal of Hierarchical Integration

simple skills typically develop separately and independently late these simple skills are integrated into more complex ones

Principal of the Independence of Systems

which suggests that different body systems grow at different rates


the degree in which a developing structure or behavior is modified due to an experience

Sensitive period

point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments.

What is nonorganic failure to thrive?

A disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting

Mothers Milk

Mothers Milk- contains all nutrient for necessary growth, helps immunity and childhood diseases


Parents argue could keep track of the amount of milk received and ensures child taking in sufficient nutrients

Language Acquisition Device

A neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language

Define Attachment

the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual

Secure Attachment Pattern

children use the mother as a kind of home base and are at ease when she is present, when she leaves, they become upset and go to her as soon as she returns.

Avoidant Attachment Pattern

children do not seek proximity to the mother, after the mother has left they seem to avoid her when she returns as if they are angered by her behavior

Ambivalent Attachment Pattern

Children display a combination of positive and negative reaction to their mothers they show great distress when the mother leaves, but upon her return they may simultaneously seek close contact but also hit or kick her

Disorganized- Disoriented Attachment Pattern

Children show inconsistent, often contradictory behavior such as approaching the mother when she returns but not looking at he, they may be the least securely attached children of all


Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual

3 Infant Temperaments

40% Easy babies- positive, body functions normal, curiosity

10% Difficult babies- negative moods, slow to adapt to new situations, withdrawal from new situations

15% slow- to - warm babies inactive, calm, mood generally negative, adapt slowly

35% remaining cant be categorized

Piaget Development

children learn much about the world by action on objects in their environment


organized patterns of functioning that adapt and change with mental functioning


process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking


Changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events

Piagets Sensorimotor Period

Earliest stage of cognitive growth 6 stages of sub growth

6 Stages of sub growth according to Piaget

1.simple reflexes - first month of life

2.first habits and primary circular reactions - 1-8

3.2nd Circular Reactions- 4-8

4.Coordination of 2nd circular reactions 8-12

5.Tertiary circular reactions 12-18

6. Beginnings of thought 18-2yrs

Greatest Risk of Injury in Preschool years?


Information Processing Theory

model that seeks to identify the way individuals take in, use and store information

Zone of proximal development

level at which child can almost perform a task independently, but needs assistance

Associative Play

2 or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys

Cooperative Play

Play in which children genuinely interact with one another taking turns, playing games, or devising contests

20% higher then an average body weight is considered...


Way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form a sentence


Type of play that involves action where children play with similar toys but do not interact with each other


Greatest increase in height and weight occurs during what year of life


internal search for information about others' feelings to explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances or events

social referencing

Most common form of child abuse


Authoritarian Parents

children - withdrawn, socially awkward children

Uninvolved Parents

children- emotionally detached, uninvolved and insecure

Authoritative Parents

children- independent, friendly, self- assertive and corporative children

Permissive Parents

children- dependent, moody children with low social skills

What is the Wug Test

How we learn language (3rd/4th grade) young children learn patterns in language they hear around them rather then imitating others

Lev Vygotsky's Play Theories

Stress fundamentals role of social interaction in development of cognition. He believed community plays a central role in process of making meaning

"Goodness of Fit"

Development dependent on degree of match between childrens temperaments and in which they are being raised


supports learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth

Bandoras Bobo Doll experiment

children do what they see, pick up behavior around them, and they see what they want vs. what they are told/ hear

Erik Eriksons Preschool Stages of Development

Stage 3 : Initative Vs. Guilt

- start choosing what they like to do

-know possession

-want to take on new tasks, plan, discover and make up games

-play and imagine