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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back



The full integration of physical, cognitive and psychosocial tasks

Assimilation in cognitive development implies

The ability to absorb more information

Young adulthood

Involves establishing a career

Psychosocial development includes

  • personality development
  • self-concept
  • social skills
  • appropriate emotional reactions

Human development


  • a hierarchical evolution of phases
  • progression from the general to the specific
  • increased complexity and sophistication
  • a recognizable, similar pattern of development in most people

Schaie's executive cognitive executive development

Responsibility and increased knowledge, which enables a person to serve in responsible positions in organisations and in the community

At which stage, according to Erikson, do people develop a basic trust in others

The first year of life

Career orientation

Taking responsibility for choosing a career by using relevant information to make a choice

The “midlife crisis” experience relates to

  • children leaving home
  • reassessment of careers
  • physical decline
  • searching for the meaning of life

Middle adulthood is mostly concerned with

Maintaining various roles



Diagnostic Statistical Manual of mental disorders

Jean Piaget

The principles of self-regulation in human cognitive development. A child's cognitive development and knowledge structures adapt to the demands of the environment.

Models of human development

Growth Model

Stage Model

Differentiation Model

Funnel and canalisation development model

Humanistic model

Growth model of human development

Genetically programmed and continuous changes and increases in motor, sensory and intellectual powers are emphasised.

Stage Model of human development

Genetically programmed and continuous changes and increases in motor, sensory and intellectual powers are emphasised, but particularly during specific life stages.

Differentiation Model of human development

The change from initial simple, holistic and diffuse behaviour to more complex, integrated and organised behaviour.

Funnel and canalisation model of human development

People's behaviour changes from very broad patterns during infancy to more fixed and socially accepted patterns during adulthood

Humanistic model of human development

From an early age people are active in and in control of directing their own development and are not controlled by unconscious urges and age or phase restrictions



Change resulting from genetic or biologically based factors



Chronological increase in years and biological and physical change



Increases in the physical size of biological structures


the improvement of mental and psychological competancies



The integration of physical, cognitive, social and psychological tasks at a level where a person can function or live as a fully functioning person at every stage



A point in development where the individual has matured sufficiently to benefit from learning or experiences so as to, for example enter school

Life and career stages in developmental theories

  • early life stage
  • Young adult stage <22 - 45>
  • Middle-adulthood stage <45-60>
  • Late-adulthood stage 60<

Critical period

a point in time when particular factors or types of learning will or can have positive or negative effects which may influence future development

Optimal period

Point at which people will be sufficiently mature to benefit from certain experiences

Huxley's concept of psychosocial evolution

Patterns of behaviour may be transferred across generations within a family through the carious process of social learning

Human development

The product of the interaction between genetic potential and social learning

Role of environmental influences on human development

Influence how the genetic potential is realised

Role of genetic influences on human development

Have definite impact on the maturation and manifestation of certain behaviour and how people behave and cope with their environment

Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological-Systems Model of Human development

A dynamic process in which the individual and the environment mutually and reciprocally influence development

Urie Bronfenbrenner's levels of systemic environment influences in HD

  • Microsystem
  • Mesosystem
  • Exosystem
  • Macrosystem

Paul Baltes factors which interactionally influence development

  1. Normative age-related influence
  2. Normative history graded influences
  3. Non-normative influences

Baltes Normative age-related influence

Usual biological and social changes that take place at certain ages, e.g. going to school

Baltes Normative history-graded influence

Historical events and traumas, such as war, natural disasters, that influence all or many people at the same time to more or less the same degree

Baltes Non-normative age-related influence

Events that happen to certain people only, or to people in different ways. Personal circumstances and demographic variables etc

Cognitive development



Jean Piaget

Progressive development of thought processes, mental abilities and the capacities to obtain, process, interpret, retrieve and use information

Jean Piaget

Stages of cognitive development

Sensory - birth to 2 years

Pre-operational - 2 to 7 years

Concrete operational - 7 to 11

Formal operation - 11 <

Jean Piaget

Hierarchial development

Cognition of all children develops in predictable phases through interaction between maturation and learning experiences

Jean Piaget

Challenges to theory

Children can learn concepts and are capable of complex reasoning in higher grades than given credit for

Domain specific



new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old idea

Jean Piaget



Progressive forms of cognitive developmental progression in a specific domain

Jean Piaget


The process of taking new information in one's environment and altering pre-existing schemas in order to fit in the new information. This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation

K. Warner Schaie

Progressive stages of development of adult thinking

  • Acquisition stage
  • achieving stage
  • responsibility stage
  • executive stage
  • reintegration stage



Seeking balance between assimilation and accommodation, between mental schemes and the invironment

K. Warner Schaie

Acquisition stage

  • Childhood and adolescence
  • Person acquires progressively more complex ways of thinking.
  • formal-operational stage represents the highest level

K. Warner Schaie

Achieving stage

  • Young adulthood
  • problem solving and decision making
  • prepares for a career

K. Warner Schaie

Responsibility stage

  • Growing into an independent thinking
  • uses own solutions
  • helps company, family, community

K. Warner Schaie

Executive stage

  • middle adulthood
  • involves responsibility
  • able to serve in responsible positions

K. Warner Schaie

Reintegration stage

  • Old age
  • Uses accumulated repertoire of intellectual skills to assess life and give meaning to what has passed

Intimate behavioural styles

Insecure attachment

  1. ambivalent attachment
  2. Avoidant attachment
  3. Disorganised/disoriented attachment

Ambivalent attachment

May show mixed feelings of acceptance and rejection. May demand extra attention in relationships

Avoidant attachment

Characterised by fear and rejection in close relationships

may avoid commitment

Disorganised/disoriented attachment

Person is confused and contradictory

May be secure with one person and confused with another

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of personality development

oral stage (first year)

anal stage (from 1 to 3 years)

phallic stage (four to five years)

latent stage (5 - 12)

genital stage (12 - 18)<


Four types of ego-identity states teens may experience in career issues

Occupational identity with no identity confusion

Moratorium - an ongoing stage of uncertainty

Vocational identity diffusion

Foreclosed or rigid

Occupational identity with no identity confusion

When adolescents are able to seek information about themselves before making choices on study and career issues

Career issues


An ongoing stage of uncertainty

when an adolescent cannot make a career choice

Vocational identity diffusion

Adolescent unable to make career or subject choices

leads to trying a number of jobs without success.

risk of failure

Foreclosed or rigid vocational identity

Unable to consider other options of careers and may make the wrong career choice, leading to a crisis or anxiety

Human development

A continuous process through the lifespan in which people progressively, and during identifiable stages, develop certain physical, cognitive, moral and psycho-social competencies to be able to function in evolving life roles