Jean Piaget's Theory

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Who is Piaget and what’s his theory?

Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who conducted a lifelong study on children’s cognitive development. Piaget observed children and adolescents in their everyday environment and posed problems for them to solve. He will then ask them, their explanation of their reasoning behind the answer. From their explanation, Piaget began to understand the young people’s minds and how they think about the world around them. (Educational psychology, pp 103)
Piaget began his studies of cognitive development because he viewed intelligence as a necessity life process that helps people adapt to their environment. (Educational psychology, pp 103) Piaget’s theory are about how students are viewed as naturally curious explorers.
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• Accommodation: existing schemas need to be adjusted or replaced to accommodate new information
• Disequilibrium: cognitive conflict that arises when experiences are contradicted by another person’s existing way of thinking.
• Equilibrium: producing a state of mind when a person’s new way of thinking now adequately reflects a person’s experiences. (educational psychology p.102)
Piaget had four stages of development where he would have different age groups and it unfolds the structured sequence of cognitive development. These four stages are listed below and the major developments are explained:
• Sensorimotor: are the infancy stage of development (0-2 years). Infants create schemas, through object permanence, infants learn that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight.
• Pre-operative: pre-school, early primary school aged children (2-7 years). Language develops rapidly. Children become imaginative in play.
• Concrete operations: Late primary school aged children (7-11 years) no longer misled by physical appearances, children use their mental operations of
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Adolescents become capable of systematic, deductive and inferential reasoning, which allows them to consider many possible solutions to a problem and choose the most appropriate one. (educational psychology p105)
Before, Piaget’s theory was evolved there were different perspectives of other theorists. They were a group of theorist who are called the Neo-Piagetian. Neo-Piagetian theory explained cognitive growth along Piagetian stages by making information processing capacity as the causes of both developments from one stage to the next and the individual differences developmental rate (neo-Piagetian). As, you can see that’s the difference between Piaget’s theory and the Neo-Piagetian theory because Piaget’s theory was about sequences of life and you have to develop and conquer one stage to go to the next.
Piaget received praise for his work, but he also received criticism. The criticisms were not about the entire theory, but about how the child can perform these duties relating to Piaget’s theory. These are some of the following criticism:
• “Piaget underestimated the intellectual capacities of infants, pre-schoolers and primary school students”- Baillargeon 1987 (Bjorklund

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