Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
set of forces that intitiates, directs, and makes people persisit in their efforts to accomplish a goal
physical or physcological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being
Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
Higher order:
Lower order:
Alderfer's ERG
Higher order:
Lower order:
McClelland's Learned Needs
Higher order:
Extrinsic reward
rewards that is tangible, visible to others, and given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors
Intrinsic reward
natural reward associated with performing a tasks or activity for its own sake
Equity Theory
theory that states that people will be motivated when they perceive tha they are being treated fairly
form of inequity in which you are getting fewer outcomes relative to inputs than your referent is getting
form of inequity in which you are getting more outcomes relative to inputs than your referent
Expectancy Theory
people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards
attractiveness or desirability of a rewards or outcome
Expectancy Theory
percieved relationship between effort and performance
the perceived relationship between performance and reward
Motivation equation
motivation= valence x expectancy x instrumentality
Reinforcement Theory
behavior is function of its consequences, that behvarios followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently and tha tbehaviors followed by negative consequences or not followed by positive consequences will occur less frequently
Positive Reinforcement
reinforcement that strengthens behavior by following behaviors with desirable consequences
Negative Reinforcement
reinforcement that stregthens behavior by withholding and unpleasant consequences when employees perform a specific behavior
weakens behavior by following behaviors with undesirable consequences
positive consequence is no longer allowed to follow a previously reinforced behavior, thus weakening the behavior
Goal Specificity
extent to which goals are detail, exact, and unambiguous
Goal Difficulty
extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish
Goal Acceptance
extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals
Performance feedback
information about the quality or quantity of past performance that indicates whether progress is being made toward the accomplishment of a goal
Trait Theory
relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, physcological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior
Initiating Structure
degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines and assigning tasks
extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, and supportive and shows concern for employees
Leadership style
way a leader generally behaves towards followers
Situational Favorableness
degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader to chane to influence the behavior of group members
Path Goal Theory
leadership theory that states that leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goals and by increasing the number and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment
Ethical Charismatics
provide developmental opportunites for followers, are open to positive and negative feedback, recognize other's contributions, share information, and have moral standards that emphasize the larger interest of the group, organization or society
Unethical Charasmatics
control and manipulate followers, do what is best for themselves instead of their organizations
Transformational Leadership
leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a groups purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self interest for the good of the group
Charismatic Leadership
transformational leaders act as role models for their followers
Inspirational Motivation
transformational leaders motivate and inspire followers by providing meaning and challenge to their work
Intellectual Stimulation
transformation leaders encourage followers to be creative and innovative
Individualized Consideration
transformational leaders pay special attention to follower's; individual needs by creating learning opportunities accepting and tolerating ndividual differences
process by which individual attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environment
Perceptual filters
the personality, physcology, or experience based difference that influence people to ignore or pay atention to particular stimuli
Selective perception
notice an accept objects and information consistent with values, beliefs and expectations while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent info
tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent with out values beliefs and expectations while ignoring or not accepting inconsistent information
Attribution Theory
we all have basic need to understand and explainthe causes of other people's behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes
Self-serving bias
tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves and attributing failure to others or environment
putting a message into a written, verbal or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver
receiver translates the wriiten, verbal, or symbolic form of a message into an understood message
Grapevine/Infomal communication Channel
transmission of messages from employee to employee outoside of formal communication channels
communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's on the job performance or behavior
communicating with someone about non job related issues that may be affecting or untergering with the person's performance
movements of face and body
pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of one's voice
Communication Medium
method used to deliever an oral or written message
act or process of perceiving sounds
making a conscious effort to hear
Active Listening
assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker non-judgemental feedback that shows you've accurately heard what he or she said
Empathetic listening
understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker
Destructive Feedback
feedback that disapproves without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient
Constructive Feedback
feedback intended to be helpful, corrective and encouraging