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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the principles guiding community health nursing practice?

  • Ethical Considerations
  • Advocacy
  • Epidemiology
  • Epidemiological Calculations
  • Epidemiological Triangle
  • The Epidemiological Process
  • Community-Based Health Education

What are the ethical considerations in Public Health?

  • preventing harm, doing no harm
  • promoting good
  • respecting both individual and community rights
  • respecting autonomy and diversity
  • providing confidentiality
  • competency
  • trustworthiness
  • advocacy
Community health nurses are concerned with what?
Protecting, promoting, preserving, and maintaining health, as well as preventing disease.


Definition & Situation of Respect for Autonomy

Individuals select those actions that fulfill their goals

Respecting a client's right to self-determination (making a decision not to pursue chemotherapy)

Definition & Situation of Nonmaleficence

No harm is done when applying standards of care

Developing plans of care that include a system for monitoring and evaluating outcomes

Definition & Situation of Beneficence

Maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms

Assessing risks and benefits when planning interventions

Definition & Situation of Distributive Justice

Fair distribution of the benefits and burden in society is based on the needs and contributions of its members

Determining eligibility for health care services based on income and fiscal resources

Epidemiology is the study of what?

Health-related trends in populations for the purpose of disease prevention, health maintenance, and health protection

Epidemiology relies on (1)______________ data to determine the rate of (2)_________ of disease and the (3)_____________ of people affected. It also is used to evaluate the effectiveness of disease (4)______________ and health (5)_______________ activities and to determine the extent to which goals have been (6)_____.

  1. statistical
  2. spread
  3. proportion
  4. prevention
  5. promotion
  6. met

Epidemiology provides a (1)________ understanding of the (2)______, (3)___________, and (4)_____________ of disease and injury.

  1. broad
  2. spread
  3. transmission
  4. incidence

Epidemiology involves the study of the (1)_____________ among an (2)_____, a (3)______, and an (4)______________. This is referred to as the (5)_______________ (6)_____________.

  1. relationships
  2. agent
  3. host
  4. environment
  5. epidemiological triangle

What is the agent in the epidemiological triangle?

The animate or inanimate object that causes the disease

What is the host in the epidemiological triangle?

The living being that is affected by the agent

What is the environment in the epidemiological triangle?

The setting or surrounding that sustains the host

What are susceptible hosts in the epidemiological triangle?

  • age
  • gender
  • genetics
  • ethnicity
  • immunological status
  • physiological state
  • occupation

What are the chemical agents in the epidemiological triangle?



What are the physical agents in the epidemiological triangle?



What are the infectious agents in the epidemiological triangle?



What are the physical environment in the epidemiological triangle?

  • geography
  • water/food supply
  • presence of reservoirs/vectors

What are the social environment in the epidemiological triangle?

  • access to health care
  • high-risk working conditions
  • poverty

What are the epidemiological calculations?

  • Incidence
  • Prevalence
  • Crude Mortality Rate
  • Infant Mortality Rate
  • Attack Rate


Number of new cases in the population at a specific time


Number of existing cases in the population at a specific time

Crude Mortality Rate

Number of deaths / population total

Infant Mortality Rate

Number of infant deaths before 1 year of age in a year / numbers of live births in the same year

Attack Rate

Number of people exposed to a specific agent who develop the disease / total number of people exposed

What is considered an epidemic?

It is when the rate of disease exceeds the usual level of the condition in a defined population

Community health nurses regularly provide health education in order to promote, maintain, and restore the health of populations. This is accomplished through a variety of means, such as community ___________ programs.


In designing community education programs, nurses must take into account the (1)_________ that make learning difficult. Some of these obstacles include (2)____, (3)________ barriers, (4)______ reading and (5)___________ skills, (6)__________ barriers, barriers to (7)_______, and lack of (8)______________. Effective community health education requires (9)_____________.

  1. barriers
  2. age
  3. cultural
  4. poor
  5. comprehension
  6. language
  7. access
  8. motivation
  9. planning

What are the learning theories used in community health nursing?

  • behavioral theory
  • cognitive theory
  • critical theory
  • developmental theory
  • humanistic theory
  • social learning theory

Behavioral Theory

Use of reinforcement methods to change learner's behaviors

Cognitive Theory

Use of sensory input and repetition to change learner's patterns of thought, thereby changing behaviors

Critical Theory

Use of ongoing discussion and inquiry to increase learner's depth of knowledge thereby changing thinking and behaviors

Developmental Theory

Use of techniques specific to learner's developmental stages to determine readiness to learn, and to impart knowledge

Humanistic Theory

Assists learners to grow by emphasizing emotions and relationships and believing that free choice will prompt actions that are in their own best interest

Social Learning Theory

Links information to beliefs and values to change or shift the learner expectations

Community health nurses enhance the provision of education by addressing _________ styles.


Visual Learners learn through "(1)________" and methods such as (2)_______ taking, (3)________ viewing, and (4)_______________. These learners "think in (5)_________"

  1. seeing
  2. note
  3. video
  4. presentations
  5. pictures

Auditory learners learn through "(1)_________" and methods such as (2)________ lectures, (3)____________, and (4)__________ loud. These learners "interpret meaning while (5)___________"

  1. listening
  2. verbal
  3. discussion
  4. reading
  5. listening

Tactile-kinesthetic learners learn through "(1)_______" and methods such as (2)______ and (3)_______, (4)_______-on approaches, and (5)________ demonstration. These learners gain "meaning through (6)_____________"

  1. doing
  2. trial
  3. error
  4. hands
  5. exploration

How to develop a Community Health Education Plan?

  • First, identify population-specific learning needs
  • Consider population-specific concerns and effect of health needs on the population to determine the priority learning need
  • Select aspects of learning theories to use in the educational program based on the identified learning need
  • Identify barriers to learning, and learning styles
  • Design the educational program
  • Implement the education program. Ensure an environment that is conducive to learning.
  • Evaluate the achievement of learning objectives and the effectiveness of instruction.

What is considered a conducive learning environment?

  • minimal distractions
  • favorable to interaction
  • learner comfort
  • readability