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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
emotional regulation

the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed

effortful control

the ability to regulate one's emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination

initiative vs guilt

erikson's 3rd psychosocial crisis in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them

intrinsic motivation

a drive or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the desire to feel smart or competent

extrinsic motivation

a drive or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem

imaginary friends

typically apparent through ages 3 to 7 and combat loneliness and emotional regulation


literally, an illness of the mind or psyche. various cultures and groups within cultures have different concepts of a specific psychopathology. a recent compendium of symptoms and disorders in u.s. is in DSM-5 while other nations use ICD-10

externalizing problems

difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out or breaking things

internalizing problems

difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless

playing with peers

is one of the most important areas in which children develop positive social skills

Parten's social playing

1. solitary play-child plays alone

2. onlooker play - child watches other children

3. parallel play - children play similarily, but not together

4. associative play - children interact, share but the play is not reciprocal

5. cooperative play - children play together

sociodramatic playing


Explore and rehearse social roles

Learn to explain their ideas

Practice emotional regulation by pretending emotions

Develop self-concept

Authoritarian parenting

characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment, and little communication from child to parent

permissive parenting

characterized by high nurturance and communication, but little discipline, guidance, or control

authoritative parenting

characterized by set limits, but also listen to child and are flexible. considered guides not authority or friends