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18 Cards in this Set

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puberty

time between first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. usually lasts 3 to 5 years

menarche

girl's first menstrual period

spermarche

boy's first ejaculation of sperm

pituitary

gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands

HPA axis

hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. a sequence of hormone production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands

secular trend

long-term upward or downward direction of a certain set of statistical measurements, as opposed to a smaller, shorter cyclical variation. over the last 2 centuries children have reached adult height earlier and it has increased due to improved nutrition and med. care

leptin

hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty. levels increase during childhood and peat at around age 12.


personal fable

an aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful/awful than anyone elses

invincibility fable

an adolescent's egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal human.

formal operational thought

in Piaget's theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitive development characterized by more systematic logical thinking and by the ability to understand and systematically manipulate abstract concepts

hypothetical thought

reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality

deductive reasoning

reasoning from a general statement. premise, or principle through logical steps to figure out (deduce) specifics. called top-down reasoning.


if its a duck, it will waddle and quack

inductive reasoning

reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to reach (induce) a general conclusion. called the bottom-up reasoning.


it waddles and quacks, ducks do that, so it must be a duck

sunk cost fallacy

the mistaken belief that if money, time, or effort that cannt be recovered has already been invested in some endeavor, then more should be invested in an effort to reach the goal.

base rate neglect

a common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior or characteristic in making a decision

dual process model

the notion that two networks exist within the human brain one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli

entity theory of intelligence

an approach to understanding intelligence that sees ability as innate, a fixed quality present at birth. those who hold this view do not believe that effort enhances achievement

incremental theory of intelligence

an approach to understanding intelligence that holds that intelligence can be directly increased by effort.