Freud And Joan Erikson's Theory Of Psychological Development

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Theory of psychological development was articulated by Erik Erikson in 1959, in collaboration with Joan Erikson. . It was a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of distinct stages of development. . Erikson says that a healthy developing individual should pass through these stages from infancy through to adulthood. All these stages are present at birth, but begin to open up in relation to both natural scheme and ecological and cultural nurturing. Erikson’s ideas were to greater extent, influenced by Freud, going along with Freud’s (1923) theory regarding the structure and topography of personality. Even though, Freud was an id psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist.
The stages were as follows;
1. Trust vs. mistrust.(
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Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (2 – 4 years).Existential Question: Is it okay to be me?
The child undergoes physical development and becomes more mobile. Between these ages, children start to assert their independence, by moving away from their caregivers or their mothers, deciding which toy to play with, and making choices of what clothe they would like to wear, and what to eat.
At this stage, the child discovers that they have many abilities and skills like putting on shoes and clothes and making up plays. It is important that the parents allow their children to explore the limits of their skills and abilities. The children should be encouraged and supported to make them more independent. If they are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel so inadequate in their ability to survive in this world, and they may then become overly dependent on
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He says that cognitive development is due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.
First, the sensorimotor stage( from birth – 2years); the main achievement is objective permanence, knowing that object exist even if it’s hidden.
Pre-operational stage (2 – 7 years), where children are able to think about things in symbolic manner. Their thinking is still egocentric, and has difficulty in accepting others views.
Concrete operational stage (7-11 years); which is considered the turning point in a child’s development as it marks the beginning of logical thinking.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development was influenced by Piaget’s work. They include;
1. Pre-conventional level; where the child’s interest is security for their own benefit. They avoid punishment, and learn to please to please others to get benefits.
2. Conventional level. The child focuses on learning about rules and authority. They learn of certain ‘conventions’ than govern their behaviors, and how to obey them.
3. Post-conventional level. Here the child has learnt of the difference between what is right and what is wrong from their moral

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