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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Behaviourism 1

Behaviourism 2

Neutral operants responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of behavior being repeated 

Reinforcers: responses from the environment that increase the probability of behavior being repeated. Reinforces can b...

Skinner 1948

Neutral operants responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of behavior being repeated

Reinforcers: responses from the environment that increase the probability of behavior being repeated. Reinforces can be either positive or negative

Punishment: responses from the environment that decreases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. punish,et weakens behavior.

Schema theory (retrieval)

Bransford and johnson (1972)

Bartlett argued that schematic influences were erected mostly during retrieval.

This idea was tested by having participants listen to a long speech containing 18 discreet ideas.

There were 3 conditions

No title

given before

Title given after


No title: 2,8 ideas on average

Title before: 5.8

Title after: 2.5

Schemas and eyewitness testimony

(loftus and palmer 1974)

Participants asked to watch 7 clips of car accidents

7 clips were different length ,5 - 39 seconds after each clip a number of questions were asked, including one leading question.

these question yielded different answers How fast (MPH) were the cars going when they: contacted: 31,8

hit: 34

bumped: 38,1


smashed: 40,8

We are influenced by the way we are asked questions, as works reflect recalling memory. Different schemata get activated depending on the words which are used.

Stress effect on recall

Iglebaek et al (2003)

Tested the idea that being at the scene had the additional stress that could affect recall had two groups of participants look at live staged robbery(n62) or the same scene on video (n64).

They found that the video group had higher average recall than the live group

Conclusion: past research might be underestimating the effect of stress in a real life situation.

Stress effect on recall

loftus (1987)

Weapons effect

Condition 1: no weapon; man with greasy hand emerged holding a pen.

Condition 2: weapon; a man emerged holding a paper knife with blood on it.

People li allocated their attention to the weapon which led to them recalling the first conditions man more accurately.

Multi store model of memory

Peterson and peterson (1959)

participants memorize consonant triplets (gro,bjw etc) to memories.

presented one at a time

then asked to count 3 digit numbers backwards before recall.

counting task took 3,6,9,12,18 seconds between conditions as time increased performance became progressively worse Supports MSM

Problems. random letters are not important thus it's not a fair test of memory.

Multi store model of memory (short term memory)

Glanzer and cunitz (1966)

Serial position words with delayed (DFR) and immediate (IFR) free recall

Participants presented with 15 words to memorise

Half in IFR condition half in DFR condition (30) second delayIn DFR rehearsal was prevented by counting backwards

Results were recorded using serial position curve(ie rates of recall for each word were recorded in the order that they were presented)

Levels of processing

Craik and Tulving (1975)

Participants were shown a list with 60 words along with each word the were shown one of three questions each testing a different level of processing similar to:

Was the word in capital letters or lowercase?Does the word rhyme with (another word)

Does the word fit in the following sentence

They found that participants were better able to recall words which had been "processed more deeply".

Aprasial of emotion

Speisman E al 1964

Participants watched a film of aboriginal boys undergoing a puberty rite (circumcision=4 conditions accompanied by a soundtrack

Trauma: pain of the boys and sharp knife emphasised

Denial: Boys anticipation of entering manhood focused on, de emphasising painful aspects.

Intellectualization: Ignored emotional aspects of the film and looked at culture and traditions

silent: no soundtrack

Trauma highest

lowest intellect and silent

middle denial

Aprasial of emotion

Smith and lazarus 1993

Asked participants to identify with a character the

Character had poor performance on an important course.

two conditions: either they were accountable for poor performance or the teacher was to blame results were as you would expect.


Herrald and Tomak 2002

Investigate anger shame and pride

had participants express an opinion of someone related to their study.

Emotions were induced as a confederate would express something in line with lazarus Eg:

you should have worked harder if that's an issue

you did really well in that situation

don't think anyone cares you feel that way.

Unconscious processing

Öhman 2000

Presented pictures of spiders and snakes to those who fear them and those who did not

One condition allowed the participants to consciously process the image

one presented the image for 30 MS followed by a neutral, meaning no conscious processing could take place.

indicated that they had a fear response though they were not consciously aware of images.

Unconsious processing

Whalen et al 1998

fMRI experiment

stimuli used were aces showed a fear expression for 30 MS followed by a neutral expression (same subject in pic) subjects did not report seeing the expression however,activation was found in the amygdala (associated with fear and flight or fight response)