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82 Cards in this Set

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How much wine does Bordeaux produce?
More than 70m cases in a reasonable vintage.
How much wine does Bordeaux produce relative to New Zealand?
Ten times
What percetage of Frances total AC with does Bordeaux represent?
25%
Why is Bordeaux in a state of crisis
Polarization in the marketplace. Prestigious chateaux count for a small amt of production but huge prices. Leaves a vast amount of wine to be sold. Needs aging.
How many Chateau names in Bordeaux
Over 3000
Describe Bordeauxs climate
45 degree latitude. Long hours of sun in ripening season Maritime climate. Frost usually not a problem but can be (1991). Humidity is high due to proximity to sea and rivers (encourages nobel and grey rot). Strong winds from Atlantic but pine forsts and mountainous coastal sand-dunes.
Name the three basic types of soil in Bordeaux
Alluvial Rich Organic (Palus) found near riverbanks (no AC wines). Hillsides have clay with limestone subsoil with broken stones and sand. Gravel including quartz pebbles over marl with some flint for best wines.
What is the soil in St. Emilion
Gravel on a limestone base.
Finest vineyards in Bordeaux?
On well-draining gravel where quartz and flit pebbles lies on a limeston base particulary in commune villages of the Haut-Medoc and N. Graves.
How many graped varietals are permitted under AC regs?
14 but in practise no more than 5 red and 3 whites
Description of Cab in Bordeaux
Super strong in the Medoc. Moderate yields, producing quality, tannic wines with a characteristic blackcurrant aroma wiht fully ripe. Difficult to ripen and can produce tough, vegetal wines.
Description of Cab Franc in Bordeaux
Mainly grown in St. Emillion and to lesser extent in Medoc and Graves. Bigger yeilds than Cab, but wines have less body and finesse. Herbaceous or stalky flavors sometimes. Wines mature more rapidly than Cab.
Merlot in Bordeaux
Most widely planted black varietal. Med. yeild, full bodied, mod. tannic wine that mature faster than cab. Adds softness, richness and body when added to austere Cab. Needs low yields or will lack character. Even at best often add stuff to provide aromatic fruit, color and tannin.
What grape varietal is particularly important in St. Emillion and Pomerol?
Merlot, where it benefits from limestone soil.
Description of Malbec in Bordeaux
Used for early drinking red wnes of the Bourg and Blaye. Suffers from Coloure. Importance sm and declining.
How are Bordeaux vineyards planted?
High density with vines trained along low wires to benefit from heat reflected from the ground.
Average age of the vines
Old.
How do they pick grapes and why?
Machine harvesting except Sauternes and Barsac and some other top growths. Greater flexibility to at vintage -especially with bad weather.
How are wines vinified.
Classically in that many other region's wines are based on the same methods. However, there are many quality levels dictating quality of vinification.
Potential differences in lower quality wine of Bordeaux`
1. Higher percentage Merlot (matures faster, greater yeilds. 2. Less green harvesting 3. Fewer selection tables after harvest. 4. Singl grape varietys and plots fermendted separately. 5. Ferm & Maceration on skins for at least 14 days.
When do Bordeaux winemakers include stalks and stems?
Higher quality wines to make longer lasting wine (increases tannins) Can also depend on the nature of the vintage.
What is the traditional fermentation method of Bordeaux
Oak but this is being largely replaced by stainless steel or epoxy lined concrete.
How are top quality wines aged.
Small oak barriques. Will replace 1/3 with new if they can afford it. ONly highest quality w/at least 10 year drinking window will get all new every year.
How much is a new cask in Bordeaux?
700 Euros.
How long do Bordeaux wines stay in oak?
24 months for finest. Lesser wines may get none at all.
Example of Medium Priced Red Wine
Intended for consumption between 5 & 10 years. Less than 2 wks fermenting. May add press wine at blending. Into barriques. Wines 3-5 years will have 8-14 days ferm. and often age in vat instead of barrel.
Inexpensive Red Wine
Within 2 years. About 8 days on skins or use carbonic maceration.
Vintification of dry white
To enhance varietal characteristics of the grap. Ferment between 15-20C. Malo blocked. Bottled 6 months after vintages. Usually stainless steel vats.
AC Heirarchy in Bordeaux
Generic (Bordeaux & Bord. Superiour)
District (Entre-deux-mers or Haut-Medoc)
Commune
What role does the Chateau Name have in the AC heirarchy?
None. Chateau Latour has AC Pauillac.
How much wine is made in the Generic Bordeaux AC
5m L of red and 1m L of white. The largeest production of any region in France. Almost a quarter of entire output.
Description of a generic red Bordeaux AC wine
Medium body. Black berry and cedar notes of more presegious wines. Some have astringent tannins and unripe flavors from overcropped vines
Description of generic white Bordeaux AC wine
Can be plain. some show some fresh grassiness or toasty notes from oak ageing. Might have some elderflower notes.
Long stretch of vineyard between the Garonne and the Atlantic Sea?
Divided into two - North of the village of St. Estephe is the Medoc AC. St. Estephe South is the Haut-Medoc.
Soil in the Medoc
Predominatny clay with signficant outcrops of gravel.
Why is Haut Medoc famous
All but one first growth lie in the Haut-Medoc.
Who has lower yeilds the Medoc or Haut-Medoc?
Haut-Medoc.
Four highly rated vineyard AC areas from North to South
St-Estephe AC
Paulliac AC
St Julien AC
Margaux AC
What are the two lesser known subregion ACs of the Haut Medoc
Listrac
Moulis
Where is Graves?
Left of the Garonne. South of the Haut-Medoc and the town of Bordeaux.
What the subregion AC's of Graves and why is it important.
Pessac-Leognan AC was created for the vineyards in teh No of Graves where all the Cru Classe chateaux are situated. White wines must be dry.
Do they make red and white wine in Graves?
Red come from the gravel soils to the north and the whites from the sandier soil in the south.
How does a red wine from Graves compare to those from Haut-Medoc and the Rt Bank?
Little lighter in body and more fragrant than Haut-Medoc. Tend to mature more quickly but not as quickly as the merot dom wines from Rt. Bank.
What rights do wines of Barsac have in labeling.
They can say Barsac AC or Sauternne AC
What is the largest appelations between the Garonne and the Dorgogne
Entre-Deux-Mers AC
What is the typical wine of Entre-Deux-Mers AC?
Dry white wine historically made from Sem. Now more likely to be a Sauv/Sem blend or all Sauv.
Can red wine be made in EDM?
Yes but must be labled AC Bordeaux
What is Saint-Croix-Du-Mont AC
Between Garonne and Dordgone. Sweet wine in Sauterne style. lower levels of botrytis so less complexity and concentration.
What wines are made in the Premiere Cote du Bordeaux?
dry red similar to Bordeaux AC or med. sweet white.
How many communes does St. Emillion include?
Nine.
How many distinct soil tyepes in St Emillion?
3
where is Fronsac?
North of Pomerol on the right side of the Dordgone.
Type of soil in the vineyards on plateau to NW of town of St Emillion
warm, well drained gravel and limestone soils encouraging inclusion of cab franc and cab.
Type of soil on the vineyards of the SE of town of St. Emillion?
Limestone escarpment. Most prestigious wines .
Description of the best red wines from St. Emillion
Rich tannins and complex red berry aromas developing tobacco and cedar nuances as they evolve.
Type of soil at the foot of the limestone escarment in St. Emillion and types of wine they produce.
Sandy. Lighter in style (lower in price)
Why do Pomerol vineyards fetch higher prices than St. Emillion?
Tiny properties with very limited production including Petrus and Le Pin.
What is the formal classification system in Pomerol?
None.
Describe wines of the Fronsac AC and Canon-Fransac AC
Lagely Merlot. full bodied, surprisingly tanic and a good value.
Where is the Bourge and the Blaye?
Opposite bank of the Gironde from the Haut-Medoc
What kind of wines are made in the Bourg and Blaye
Early drinking red and wite wines often sold under Chateau names. Best appelations are Cotes de Bourg AC and Premiere Cotes de Blaye AC
How has the Medoc and Sauternes classified their Chateau
The 1855 Classification on the occasionof the Paris Univeral Exhibition done by the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce.
How many Cru Classes in the 1855 Classification?
61 divided into 5 Ranks
How many First Growth (Premiere Cru)
5 Premier Cru in the Medoc
How many Second Growth (deuxiemes cru)
14
How many Third Growth (troisiemes cru)
14
How many Fourth Growth (quatriemes crus)
10
How many Fifth Growth (cinquiemes crus)
18
What is the Cru Bourgeois?
Introduced in 1932 as an update to the 1855 Classification. Updated again 1978 and 2003 and revisited every 10 years.
How many properties qualify as Cru Borurgeois?
Over 200 divided at 3 levels -Cru Borgeois Exceptional
Cru Borgeois Superieur
Cru Borgeios
How many properties qualify as Cru Borgeois Exceptional?
9
How many properties qualify as Cru Borgeois Superieur?
87
How many properties qualify as Cru Borgeois?
151
How are the sweet wines of Sauternes classified?
1855 Classiication. Three levels:
Premier Grand Cru Classe
Preimier Cru
Deuxieme Cru
How many Premier Grand Cru Classes for Sauternes?
One - Chateau d'Yquem
How many Premier Cru (First Growth) Chateaux in Sauternes
11
How many Deuxieme Cru (Second Growth) Chateaux in Sauternes
14
Name the First Growths
Ch Haut Brion
Ch Margeaux
Ch Lafite
Ch Latour
Ch Mouton-Rothschild
Why is Ch Haut Brion special with regard to the classification of 1855
Ch Haut Brion was the only property from outside the Medoc to be included.
Why is Ch Mouton-Rothschild special with regard t the classification of 1855?
It was a second growth until 1973. Only time a chateau ha been reclassified.
How are the wines of St-Emillion classified?
Only area in Bordeaux where the classifications are integrated into the AC system. There is a separate St. Emillion Grand Cru AC that has three levels.
What are the three levels of St. Emillion Grand Cru AC?
Grand Cru
Grand Cru Classe
Premiere Grand Cru Classe with has 2 futher levels Premier Grand Cru Classe A & B