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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

DNA code for traits by dictating

protein synthesis

Proteins are the links between

genotype and phenotype

The molecular chain of command is from

DNA in the nucleus to RNA in nucleus to RNA in the cytoplasm to protein


sends out copy of "instructions" in the form of mRNA

mRNA is made by copying DNA strand



The mRNA instructions go out into cell

Tell cell what proteins to make (cytoplasm)

Triplet code

the flow of information from gene to protein is based on a......

instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain are written in DNA and RNA as a series of non over lapping, three base "words: called codons.

translation involves switching from

the nucleotide " language" to the amino acid " language"

each amino acid is specified by a codon

most amino acid have more than one possibly codon

genetic code is the

amino acid translation of each nucleotide triplet

three nucleotides each amino acids

sixty- one codons correspond to amino acids

AUG codes for methinine and signals the start of transcription


more than one codon for some amino acids


in that any codon for one amino acid does not code for any other amino acid

Translation etc

proteins are strings of amino acids

one gene= one protein

Ribosomes translate

RNA code into proteins

Central dogma of molecular biology

1. Replication- all DNA is copied from other DNA

2. Transcription- all RNA is copied from DNA

3. Translation- all proteins are synthesized from RNA

Transcription three main phases

1. Initiation- attachment of RNA polymerase

2. Elongation- growing the new RNA strand

Transcription 1

RNA polymerase binds to a promoter just upstream from initiation site


sequences of 3 nucleotides that tells RNA polymerase that a gene is nearby

more transcription1

RNA polymerase starts moving along DNA, from 5' to 3, adding nucleotides to growing strand of mRNA

more transcription2

keeps going until hits stop sequence/terminator DNA

RNA polymerase and mRNA strand "falls off"

Eukaryotic RNA processioning1

Messenger RNA(mRNA)

Encodes amino acid sequences

conveys genetic messages from DNA to the translation machinery of the cell

Eukaryotic RNA processioning2

In eukaryotes, mRNA must exit the nucleus via nuclear pores to enter the cytoplasm

mRNA processing

processed in several ways before leaving nucleus

Guanine cap added to 5' end

Poly A tail added to 3' end

splicing occurs...removal of introns