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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Passive transport

when movement of molecules driven by concentration gradient. No ATP required.


Water can diffuse from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Special case for the diffusion of water(FREE WATER)

Free water

water that is not associated with a solute molecule


sticks to solute molecules. form hydration sphere. many water surrounds each solute because its adhesive properties.

Adding solute to water will

decrease the amount of free water. another way is tonicity


Special terms exist to compare solute concentration between a cell and its environment


solution with higher solute concentration than one comparing to


solution with a lower concentration than one comparing to


solution with same solute concentration as one comparing to


water can move in and out of cells easily. Cells control water balance by controlling solute concentrations. Depends on the cell type and the environment.

Osmosis in plant cells

maintain higher solute inside of cell, on purpose, so water moves in...pushes out against cell wall. This is turgor pressure( plant shriveling, needs water)

Freshwater fish in osmosis

hypertonic to the water around them... have to keep pumping water out of cell.

Molecules don't move directly through lipid bi layer?

Can move via facilitated diffusion. Passive transport. Protein provides channel. used for ions and small molecules. Very selective

Active transport

Cells uses ATP energy to move ions or molecules. Can move against concentration gradient . Transport protein changes shape during the process

Transport protein steps

1. Solute binds to transport protein

2. ATP provides energy for changes in protein shape.

3. Protein returns to original shape and more solute can bind.


is used for export


is used for import

Three types of enocytosis

1. Phagocytosis ( WBC, vacuoles,large molecules)

2. Pinocytosis ( fluid- take it)

3. Receptors( miated endocytosis, vesicles, random picking)


capacity to cause change or to do work

Kinetic Energy

energy in motion

Potential energy

stored energy due to location or structure

Chemical energy

potential energy stored in a molecule

Laws of thermodynamic

study of energy transformations

first law of thermodynamics

total amount of energy in universe is constant(cannot created or destroyed...just change form)

Second law of thermodynamic

energy conversions reduce the order of the universe ( or increase entropy)


disorder so entropy increases


needs energy to go. product have more energy than reactants. Reaction makes a molecules or molecules


releases energy


sum of all endergonic and exergonic rxns occuring in a cell


series of rxns that builds or brakes down a molecule


energy currency of cells. Powers all form of cell work


transfer of phosphate group to another molecule