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19 Cards in this Set

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1. Duplicated chromosomes condense

2. Spindle starts forming( attached to centrosomes)


1. The nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears

2. Micro tubules extend from the centrosomes into the nuclear region

3. Some spindle micro tubules attach to the centromeres.

4. other micro tubules meet those from the opposite poles


Chromosomes walked along spindle to the equator of the cell(line up in imaginary equator)


1. Sister chromatids separate and are pulled by micro tubules to opposite ends of cell.

2. Each chromatid is still a chromosomes- just not duplicated


1. Spindle releases chromosomes

2. Chromosones retuen to regular( Chromatin form)

3. Nuclear membrane from around chromosomes

*not the end of mitosis


Start with single cell with two nuclei

Animals in cytokensis

cell membrane pinches into two by process of cleavage

plant in cytokensis

cell plate form in between two nuclei eventually joins to original cell wall

In our bodies most cells divide

5 million per second

Rarely divide and stays in interphase

fat, muscle, and nerve cells

Cell cycle

1. Regulated by growth factors...these are proteins

2. Contains" checkpoint" that can stop or promote an event

3. Tell cycle when to start...stopp.

4. If no growth factor, no mitosis....

G1 checkpoint

allows entry into S phasr or causes the cell to leave the cycle( enters a non-dividing G0 phase)

1. G2 checkpoint

2. M check point

What is the hottest areas in biology to study?

Research on the control of the cell cycle


claims 20% of the people in the US.

cancer cells escape control on the cell cycle

cancer cell divide excessively and invade other tissues of the body


is a mass of abnormally growing cell

Benign tumors

remain at the original site but may disrupt certain organs if they grow in size

malignant tumors

can spread to other location in a process called metastasis

how is regulation faulty?

most cells when packed too tight, stop production of growth factors

Treatments of cancer

1. Surgery

2. Radiation

3. Chemotherapy(antibiotic drugs, interfere with mitosis/centro lies)