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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides

Each nucleotides contains

sugar, phosphate, and base

what forms the backbone for the nucleotides

sugars and phosphate

Deoxyribose as sugar

Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine as basses

double stranded

in eukaryotes- always with proteins


Ribose as sugar

Adenine. cytosine, guanine, and uracil as bases

copied from DNA

single or double stranded

DNA History

knew about genetic material but not structure

who work on the figuring our DNA structure

Pauling, Wilkins, Franklin, Watson and Crick

Who figured our about sugar phosphate backbone


who figured out how bases paired up

Watson and Crick

DNA srtucture

double helix

rope ladder twisted

each side of the ladder is a long string of sugar/phosphate/nitrogenous bases strung together

The rungs in DNA

one side nitro base with other side nitro base

A with T

G with C

The rungs in RNA

A with U

G with G

Base pairing

during DNA replication, one strand is served as template

new strand is made and end the end : duplication DNA

1/2 old, 1/2 new

Called semiconserative model

DNA replication 1

requires a dozen enzymes of proteins

starts at orgin of replication

copying done by polermerase

3 to 5 inch direction on the DNA strand being copied

DNA replication 2

two halves of DNA copied in a different way

one is discontinues and one ins continous

DNA polymerase on discontinous strand goes to 3-5 makes pieces, than releases, re-binds, repeats

DNA replication steps 1

enzymes breaks bonds between bases

DNA replication steps 2

nucleotides of each side of the ladder are now exposed

DNA replication steps 3

The strand same as templates(both of them)

DNA replication steps 4

DNA polymerase adds them, one by one, to each strand following the rules of base pairing

DNA replication steps 5

Starts at the 3' end of stand(the template )

DNA replication steps 6

Addition moves toward 5' end ( of the template strand)

DNA replication steps 7

When reaches end of template DNA polymerase releases DNA

DNA replication facts

pretty fast

50 nucleotides added per second

error rate: 1 for every billion added

proof reading- DNA polymerase checks for error