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144 Cards in this Set

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study of the structure of the body and its parts


study of the function of the body and its parts

central nervous system (CNS)

division of the nervous system located within the skull and spine

receives, processes, sends signals to PNS

Peripheral nervous system PNS

division of nervous system located outside the skull and spine

carries information to and from CNS

what are the two parts of the PNS

somatic and autonomic

Somatic nervous system

interacts with external environment

Afferent nerves (Somatic NS)

carry signals to the CNS

Efferent nerves (somatic)

carry motor signals from CNS to skeletal muscles

skeletal muscles

striated muscles attached to the skeleton

Autonomic NS

more to do with internal organs

Afferent nerves (autonomic)

carry sensory signals from internal organs to CNs

Efferent nerves (autonomic)

carry motor signals from internal organs to CNS

sympathetic and parasympathetic functions

1. sympathetic nerves stimulate, organize, and mobilize energy resources for emergencies

2. parasympathetic nerves conserves energy

3. each organ controlled by para and symp activity

4.sympathetic changes indicate psychological excitation

5. parasympathetic indicates psychological relaxation


bundles of axons

cranial nerves

project from brain as opposed to spinal chord

how many pairs of cranial nerves


common sense view of emotions

perception of stimulus(see bear)-->experience of emotion(fear)-->physiological response

james lange view

perception of stimulus (see bear)-->

physiological response-->

experience of emotion (fear)

Cannon Bard view

perception of stimulus-->

experience of emotion and physiological response simultaneously

Schacter singer view

we label physiological responses as different emotions depending on the situation

Modern Biopsych view

each of the three factors influence each other

-can take into account feedback from situation in labeling emotion

Protection for spinal chord

1. skull and backbone

2. 3 meninges

3. cerebral spinal fluid

what are the 3 meninges

1. dura mater

2. arachnoid membrane

3. Pia mater

what is cerebral spinal fluid system

colorless fluid that circulates through CNS

central canal

runs through length of spinal cord

Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)

diagnostic procedure used to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid

needle between 3 and 4 or 5 vertebrae

used to diagnose meningitis

cerebral ventricles

4 internal chambers of the brain

disorders associated w/ cerebral ventricles

huntington's, alzheimers, schizophrenia

where is CSF made?

choroid plexuses (type of capillaries)


blockage to CSF system, results in expansion of the brain

how is hydrocephalus treated (in babies)

remove blockage, drain excess fluid with implanted shunt (valve drains fluid to gut)

functions of CSF system

1. cushioning of CNS

2. helps supply nourishment to CNS

3. remove waste from CNS

4. ?

blood brain barrier

tightly packed cells covering blood vessels, and sealed by glial cells

function of blood brain barrier

big molecules blocked, oxygen and CO2 allowed to pass through, glucose transported across

why does blood brain barrier break down at area postrema?

to allow the brain to detect toxic substances that have been consumed


toward nose end


toward tail end

dorsal (superior)

toward surface of back or top of head

ventral (inferior)

toward surface of chest or bottom of head


toward midline of body


away from midline of body

horizontal plane(slice of brain)

cut in a plane parallel to top of brain

frontal (coronal) plane

cut in plane parallel to face

saggital plane

cut in plane parallel to side of brain (down middle of face)

mid saggital plane

cut down center of brain

gray matter (spinal cord)

mostly cell bodies and unmylenated interneurons


cover some axons, speeds up signals


communicate only with other neurons

Surrounding H: White matter

mostly myelinated axons

where is gray matter in spinal cord

in cross section, makes up the H

where is white matter in spinal cord

in cross section, surround the H

dorsal neurons


ventral neurons


stretch reflex

a reflex elicited by a sudden external stretching force on a muscle (knee jerk)

what is the function of the stretch reflex?

allows us to compensate for sudden changes in our body's orientation

brain overview

forebrain controls midbrain, midbrain controls hindbrain

hindbrain (medulla) involved in what functions

reticular formation

sleep, attention, movement, maintaining muscle tone, cardiac, resp functions


makes up 10% of brain but holds more than half of the brain's neurons

what is the cerebellum involved in

fine motor skills, affected soon after drinking alcohol

results of damage to cerebellum

uncoordinated, inaccurate movements

problems with balance

learning new motor sequences is difficult

alcohol affects

superior colluculus (midbrain)

seeing, receives information from retina (eye)


ability of some blind people with damage to visual cortex to respond to visual cues

inferior colluculus (midbrain)

receives info from ear (hearing)

substantia nigra

involved in parkinson's disease


largest division of the human brain

functions of thalamus

relays sensory information to areas of brain

functions of hypothalamus

inferior to thalamus, controls pituitary, sexual behavior, eating

corpus collosum

largest tract connecting hemispheres of brain


large furrow in brain (allow for greater surface area)

sulcus fissure

small fissures

gyr/ gyrus

ridges between fissures and sulk

advantage of convolutions

can pack more brain matter into skull

longitudinal fissure

divides the two hemispheres

central and lateral fissures

help mark out the 4 lobes of the brain

frontal lobe

about 90% of cerebral cortex in humans, most recently evolved

precentral (frontal lobe)

motor functions

anterior (prefrontal) lobe

complex cognitive functions

planning responses, evaluating patterns of behavior, assessing behavior of others

occipital lobe

primary visual cortex, analyzes visual information

parietal lobes

analyzes sensations from body (touch), perceiving locations of objects an out bodies

temporal lobe

hearing, language, complex visual patterns

which lobe contains primary visual cortex?

occipital lobe

which lobe contains the primary auditory cortex?

the temporal lobe

which lobe contains the somatosensory cortex?

parietal lobe

which lobe contains the motor cortex?

frontal lobe

which lobe contains wernickes area


which lobe contains broca's area



a brain damaged produce deficit in the ability to produce or comprehend language

broca's aphasia

normal comprehension of both written and spoken language, but speech is slow and labored

expressive disorder

Wernicke's aphasia

disorder of language comprehension both written and spoken, associated deficits in speech production

receptive disorder

limbic system

involved in motivated behavior (fight or flight, eating, sexual behavior)

amygdala involved in

emotional reactions, fear, anger, recognizing fear in others, conditioned fear


involved with consolidating memories (putting memories in permanent storage)

basal ganglia

subcortical structures, important role in voluntary movement

nucleus accumbens

plays a role in rewarding behavior

(addictive drugs and other reinforcers)

what are neurons

the basic building blocks of the nervous system

cell body (soma) neuron functions

metabolism (energy production)

synthesis of proteins from genes


contains chromosomes


clear fluid outside of nucleus


processes emanating from cell body which communicate with other neurons


process projecting from cell body


process projecting from the cell body, carries the neural signal

axon hillock

cone shaped region at junction between axon and cell body,

involved in decision to increase or decrease neural signal

myelin sheath

fatty insulation around many axons, speeds up neural signal,

nodes of ranvier

gaps between sections of myelin

multiple sclerosis (MS)

degeneration of myelin


knobby ending of axon branch


molecules released from neurons that influence other cells


junction between two neurons or a neuron and a muscle/gland

synaptic cleft

gap between synapses

synaptic vesicles

membrane covered balls carrying neurotransmitters

neuron cell membrane composed of what

lipid bilayer

head of lipid bilayer is what

hydrophilic (polar), attracts water

tail of bilayer is what

hydrophobic (non-polar), rejects water

channel proteins

allow certain molecules to pass through membrane

signal proteins

transfer a signal to inside of cell when certain molecules bind to outside

multipolar neuron

neurons with more than one process emanating from cell body


neurons with one process emanating from cell body

bipolar neurons

neuron with two processes emanating from cell body

most human neurons are what


sensory neurons

carry information from sense receptors to CNS

motor neurons

carry info from CNS to muscles and glands


communicate with other neurons, make up most of human brain

support cells of nervous system

provide physical and functional support

suport structure

remove waste

make up myelin

help deliver nourishment

glial cells

support cells of the central nervous system

satelite cells

support cells of the peripheral nervous system

golgi stain

dies some neurons black, shows shape but not internal structure

nissl stain

stains all neurons in preparation, but only cell bodies

tracing stains

inject into neurons in brain, will follow axons

myelin stains

stains myelin covered axons

membrane potential

difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of neuron

why were membrane potentials tested in giant squid?

because they have huge axons, easier to get electrode inside axons

axon at rest

inside is more negative than outside


charged particles

negative ion

more electrons than protons

positive ions

more protons than electrons

ions inside and outside membrane

sodium (Na+) and Chloride (Cl-) ions outside,

Potassium (K+) and protein ions inside

why don't protein ions leave resting axon

too big to fit across membrane

why don't chloride ions rush into resting neuron

have same charge as resting neuron, so are repelled

function of sodium potassium pumps

pump sodium ions out of neuron, pump K+ into neuron

what are EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials)

increase likelihood that neuron will fire, inside becomes more positive

what are IPSPs?

decrease likelihood that neuron will fire, makes inside of neuron more negative

graded potentials

potentials can have different strengths

what is integration

combining a number of individual EPSP and IPSP into one overall signal

which part of neuron does integration occur

axon hillock