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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 5 ways agonists work
1- Increase precursor
2-Increase exocytosis
3- Increase affinity of post-somatic receptors
4-Inhibit degrading enzymes
5- slow or block reuptake
release of neurotransmitter from pre-synaptic membrane.
Antagonists work:
Post synaptic receptors can be blocked
Reticular Formation
Produces many neurotransmitters which can then be projected throughout the brain
Drugs of abuse generally work in a 3 step process:
1- Cause the vental tegmental area to release dopamine to:
2- Nucleus Acumbens (Nacc) to:
3- frontal cortex
Monoamine Oxidaise (MAO)
Inhibit degrading enzymes
In the synaptic cleft
there are degrading enzymes. Some drugs can make these degrading enzymes less effective.
What fights neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft.
Degrading enzymes
Dopaminergic Neurons
synthesize and contain dopamine
Genetic Predisposition for addiction:
Possibly reuptaking Dopamine too quickly.
First man to describe the difference between wanting and liking.
If I "want" but don't "like" what's working hard?
Nucleus Accumbens
Inhibits Dopamine reuptake
Inhibits Dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake.
Increases release of Dopamine and norepinephrine
Plays a role in brain's vigilance. Low in the morning, more as we become more awake.
Increases affinity of postsynaptic acetytlcholine
Ecstasy (MDMA)
Increase exocytosis of serotonin
Bind with GABA receptors especially in the amygdala
Mimic endorphins- Bind with the periaquaductal gray
tetrahydrocannibinol (THC)-
Binds with anandamide receptors
-Rapidly turns them on and off.
anandamide receptors
Are autoreceptors found in the:
basal ganglia
imitate serotonin-
which inhibits raphe nuclei.
And increases activity of locus coeruleus.
Raphe Nuclei
Inhibition happens naturally during dreams.
Increased activity of locus coeruleus
Releases norepinphrine throughout brain, and increases vigilance.
Noreadrenic neurons make:
norepinephrine and epinephrine
Locus coeruleus
releases norepinephrine
GABA is always
Glutamate is always
Structural Neuroimaging:
-Computer Aided Tomography (CAT) scan
-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Functional Neuroimaging
-Positron-emission Tomography (PET)
- functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Other Biopsychology methods
Electroencephalography (EEG)
Computer Aided Tomography (CAT) scan
Series of x-ray slices put together (structural)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
perturbs hydrogen atom and then allows them to 'relax' (structural)
Positron-emission Tomography (PET)
radioactive marker is attached to glucose or a neurotransmitter (functional)
functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
measures oxygenated blood (functional)
Problems with functional neuroimaging
poor spatial and temporal
Electroencephalogram (EEG)- problems and advantages
poor spatial resolution, good temporal
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Electrodes placed on scalp measure electrical activity.
lessions/ablations- problems &advantages
Destroys part of the brain, allows for naturalistic observation
Changes from one form of energy to another.
Auditory Transduction happens where
Visual transduction
electromagnetic energy is absorbed or reflected
-located throughout retina
-see in greys
-good in low light
-3 kinds
-good for color
-better acuity
-mostly in fovea
Trichromatic color theory
blue-short wave
green-medium wave
red- long wave
Ganglion cells
in the retina, combine to form the optic nerve.
Projected in 2 places
10% optic path projects to
superior colliculi
90% optic path projects to
lateral geniculate nuclei
The magnocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nuclei
is important for detecting motion
The parvocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nuclei
is important for red and green oponent processes.
The koniocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nuclei
is important for yellow and blue opponent processes.
Simple cortical cells emphasize
The dorsal stream of the simple cortical cells
The ventral stream
what objects are
difficulty recognizing objects
difficulty recognizing faces
Outer and middle ear:
tynpanic membrane
visible part of your ear.
typanic membrane
eardrum, transmit sounds from the pinna to the ossicles
3 small bones in middle ear. Transmit sound from the typanic membrane to the oval window
snail shaped
Oval window
vibrations of it, cause fluid to move, which moves different areas of the basilar membrane, and the cillia of the hair cells.
Basilar membrane (stiff/more flexible)
Stiffer at the base
more flexible at the apex
Cillia of the hair cells
when the hair flicks back and forth transduces to neuroenergy.
Place theory
high pitch sounds move the basilar membrane most at the base. Low pitch sounds move mostly at the apex.
The Hair cells synapse on the
spiral ganglia cells
spiral ganglia cells form the
auditory nerve
The auditory nerve projects to the
the cochlear nucleus
the cochlear nucleus projects to the
ipsilateral superior olive and the
contralateral superior olive
The ipsilateral superior olive and the contralateral superior olive allow for
sound location
The ipsilateral superior olive and the contralateral superior olive project to the
inferior colliculi
the inferior colliculi project to the
medial geniculate nuclei
the medial geniculate nuclei
filters information and projects to the primary auditory cortex
The primary auditory cortex is arranged
Conduction deafness
fussion of ossicles, happens with age. Hearing aids help
nerve deafness
death of the hair cells. Usually happens with loud noise over time.
ringing in the ears. The hair cells get tangled.