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42 Cards in this Set

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Dualism: Mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies. Knowledge is innate - born within us.


Dualism: Mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies. Knowledge is innate - born within us.


Monism: Mind cannot be separated from the body because mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.

Derived principles from careful observations.

Knowledge in not pre-existing.

Rene Descartes

Mind is "entirely distinct from body" and able to survive death.

Dissected animals

Brain cavity fluid contained "animal spirits"

Nerve paths enable reflexes.

Francis Bacon

One of the founders in modern day science.

The human mind "supposes a greater degree of order and equality" than is truly there.

We notice and remember things that confirm our beliefs.

We must use experiments.

John Locke

The mind at birth is a blank slate.

We learn from experience.

We must learn from experience.

William Wundt

Considered the "father of psychology"

Established the first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Germany.

Pioneered the method of "introspection"

G. Stanley Hall
Child Development Theory

Edward Titchener

Structural psychology


Wrote a psychology textbook

Charles Darwin

Wasn't technically a psychologist

William James

Emotions are a physiological reaction

Value of idea dependent on usefulness

Mary Whiton Calkins

Self psychology


Dream Research

Margaret Floy Washburn

Theory of consciousness

First woman to earn a PhD

Theorized all mental functions produced physical reactions

John B. Watson

Father of behaviorism

Behaviorism: Psychology of human behavior

Little Einstein Experiment: Conditioned babies to be afraid of rats

Wasn't allowed to prove his theory


B.F. Skinner
Radical Behaviorism
Operant Conditioning

Sigmund Freud

Founder of psychoanalysis

Conception of unconscious



Id, Ego, Super Ego

Talking Cure


Carl Rogers

Humanistic psychology

Optimist view that people are innately good

"Self-concept" is the cornerstone for personality

People are motivated to achieve their full potential


Humanistic psychology

Abraham Maslow

Pyramid of desires

Self actualization


Self actualization

Dorothea Dix
Jail and mental assylum reforms

Jail reform

Assyulm reform

Ivan Pavlov

Russian Behaviorist


Jean Piaget

Theory of cognitive development

Series of tests on cognitive development

4 stages of mental development

Development of children

Cognitive development

Genetic epistemology


Behavioral Psychology

You can observe the way people react to certain situations.

Our emotional responses to our childhood can affect our behavior.

Behavioral Psychology is how we learn observable responses.

This type of psychology only cares about behaviors that impair our living, attempts, rewards, and punishment and how we can change them.

John B. Watson

B.F. Skinner

Sigmund Freud

Biological Psychology

How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences; how genes combine with the environment to influence individual differences. The scientific study of the links between biological and psychological process.

Links between brain and mind
Cognitive Psychology

Scientifically explores how we perceive, process, and remember information. How we encode, process store, and retrieve information.

How do we see the world?

How did we learn to act sad or happy?

Evolutionary Psychology

How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes; focuses on Darwinism.

We behave the way we do becasue we inherited those behaviors.

Charles Darwin
Humanistic Psychology

Ways the environment can effect our growth, the importance of having love and acceptance.

How we meet our needs for love and acceptance and achieve fulfillment.

Positive growth

Self actualization

Maximum potential

Carl Rogers

Abraham Maslow

Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic Psychology
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts, usually stemming from our childhood.
Sigmund Freud
Socio-cultural Psychology
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.

An approach is a perspective that involves certain assumptions about human behavior: the way we function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study.

Biopsychosocial Approach
Incorporates multiple approaches or levels of analysis and offers a more clear picture of any given behavior or mental process.

Studies the measurement of our abilities, attitudes, and traits.

Developmental Psychology
Our changing abilities from birth to death

Educational Psychology
Influences on teaching and learning

Personality Psychology
Investigating our persistent traits

Social Psychology

How we view and affect one another

Industrial-Organizational Psychology
Use of psychology's concepts and methods in the workplace

Human Factors Psychology
Interaction of humans, machines, and physical environments

Counseling Psychology
Help people to cope with challenges or crises and to improve their personal and social functioning

Clinical Psychology
Asses and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders

May provide psychotherapy, licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders

Positive Psychology
Scientifically explores "Positive emotions, positive character traits, and enabling institutions".

Community Psychology
Work to create social and physical environments that are healthy for all