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75 Cards in this Set

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Prime Mover (Agonist)



Functional Group Classifications of Muscle (3)

Prime Mover (Agonist)

- Muscle that has the major responsibility for producing a specific movement of that movement

- Ex: Pectoralis major muscle of arm flexion


- Muscles that oppose or reverse a particular movement

- Regulate action of prime mover with resistance (Opposite side of joint)

Ex: Latissimus dorsi of arm flexion

- Can also be prime mover

Ex: Latissimus dorsi of arm extension


- Help prime movers by adding extra force to same movement or by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movements


- When synergists immobilize a bone or muscle origin so prime mover has stable base


A muscle that crosses on the anterior side of a joint produces:


A muscle that crosses the posterior side of a joint produces:


A muscle that crosses on the lateral side of a joint produces:


A muscle that crosses on the medial side of a joint produces adduction:



2 Examples of muscles named for their distinctive shapes









In muscle size means?


Naming muscles by the direction of fibers: the fibers run parallel to the midline of the body or the longitudinal axis of a limb bone


Naming muscles by direction of fibers: the fibers run at right angles to the longitudinal axis of a limb bone or to midline of body


Naming muscles by direction of fibers: the fibers run obliquely to the longitudinal axis of a limb bone or to midline of body


Ceps, mean?

Each attached to a different origin

Orbicularis Oculi

- Thin, flat sphincter muscle of eyelid; surround rim of the orbit

- Closes eye; produces blinking and squinting; draws eyebrows inferiorly

Orbicularis Oris

- Complicated multilayered muscle of the lips with fibers that run in many different directions; most run circularly

- Closes lips; purses and protrudes lips; kissing and whistling


- Powerful muscle that covers lateral aspect of mandibular ramus

- Prime mover of jaw closure; elevates madible


- Two-headed muscle located on anterolateral surface of neck

- Flexes and laterally rotates the head


- Located more laterally than anteriorly on neck

- Flexes and rotates neck; elevates first two ribs

Erector Spinae

- Prime mover of back extension

- Extend and laterally flex the vertebral column

Rectus Abdominus

- Medial superficial muscle pair; extend from pubis to rib cage

- Flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column

- Fix and depress ribs, stabilize pelvis during walking, increase intra-abdominal pressure; used in sit-ups and curls

External Oblique

- Largest, most superficial lateral muscle

- Flex vertebral column and aids in rotating trunking and flexing laterally

- Oblique curls

Pectoralis Minor

- Flat, thin muscle directly beneath and obscured by pectoralis major

- Moves rib superiorly or draws scapula forward and downward

Serratus Anterior

- Fan-shaped muscle; lies deep to scapula

- Important in abducting and raising arm, horizontal arm movements

- Rotates scapula so its inferior angle moves laterally and upward

- Pushing, punching, "boxer's muscle"


- Most superficial muscle of posterior thorax

- Adduct scapula, elevate scapula, help extend head

- Shrugging

Pectoralis Major

- Large, fan shaped muscle covering superior portion of chest

- Adducts and medially rotates arm, assists in flexion and extension of arm

- Climbing, throwing, pushing


- Thick, multipennate muscle forming rounded shoulder muscle mass

- Prime mover of arm abduction, antagonist of pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi

- Arm-swinging while walking

Latissimus Dorsi

- Broad, flat, triangular muscle of lower back (lumbar region)

- Prime mover of arm extension; powerful arm adductor; medially rotates arm at shoulder

- Striking a blow, hammering, swimming, rowing, chin-ups


- Named for its location on posterior aspect of a scapula

- Initiates abduction of arm

- Helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus, as when carrying a heavy suitcase


- Partially covered by deltoid and trapezius; named for scapular location

- Rotates arm laterally

- Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity, stabilizes shoulder joint

Teres Minor

- Small, elongated muscle inferior to infraspinatus

- Rotates arm laterally

- Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity, stabilizes shoulder joint

Teres Major

- Thick, rounded muscle; located inferior to teres minor

- Extends, medially rotates and adducts arm

- Synergist of latissimus dorsi

Triceps Brachii

- Large fleshy muscle; the only muscle of posterior compartment of arm

- Powerful forearm extensor prime mover, antagonist of forearm flexors, assist in arm adduction

- Spans shoulder and elbow joint


- Short, triangular muscle; blended with distal end of triceps on posterior humerus

- Control ulnar abduction during forearm pronation

- Synergist of triceps brachii in elbow extension

Biceps Brachii

- Two-headed fusiform muscle; tendon of long head helps stabilize shoulder joint

- Flexes and supinates forearm, weak flexor of arm at shoulder

- Opening bottle of wine

- Spans shoulder and elbow joint


- Strong muscle that is immediately deep to biceps brachii on distal humerus

- Major forearm flexor (lifts ulna as biceps lift the radius)


- Composite of Iliacus and Psoas Major

- Prime mover for thigh flexion, trunk flexion, lateral trunk flexion

- Bowing


- Straplike superficial muscle running obliquely across anterior surface of thigh to knee; longest muscle in body; crosses both hip and knee joints

- Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh; weak knee flexor

- Cross-legged position

- Spans hip and knee joint

Quadriceps Femoris

- Forms the flesh of front and sides of thigh consisting of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis

- Powerful knee extensor used in climbing, jumping, running and rising from seated position

Rectus Femoris

- Superficial muscle of anterior thigh

- Extends leg and flexes thigh at hip

- Spans hip and knee joint

Vastus Lateralis

- Largest head of the quadriceps femoris

- Extends and stabilizes leg

Vastus Medialis

- Forms inferomedial aspect of thigh

- Extends leg

Tensor Fascia Lata

- Enclosed between fascia layers of anterolateral aspect of thigh

- Flexes and abducts thigh; rotates thigh medially

Gluteus Maximus

- Largest and most superficial gluteus muscle; forms bulk of buttock mass

- Major extensor of thigh, laterally rotates and abducts thigh

- Climbing stairs and running


- Fleshy muscles of the posterior thigh consisting of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus

- Prime movers of thigh extension and knee flexion

- Spans hip and knee joints

Biceps Femoris

- Most lateral muscle of the hamstrings

- Extends thigh and flexes leg; laterally rotates leg, especially when knee is flexed


- Lies medial to biceps femoris

- Extends thigh and flexes leg; helps semimembranosus medially rotate leg


- Deep to semitendinosus

- Extends thigh and flexes leg; medially rotates leg

Tibialis Anterior

- Superficial muscle of anterior leg; laterally parallels sharp anterior margin of tibia

- Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot; helps support medial longitudinal arch of foot

Extensor digitorum longus

- Unipennate muscle on anterolateral surface of leg; lateral to tibialis anterior muscle

- Prime mover of toe extension; dorsiflexes foot

Triceps Surae

- Refers to muscle pair Gastrocnemius and Soleus that shapes the posterior calf

- Prime movers of ankle plantar flexion


- Superficial muscle of the triceps surae

- Plantar flexes foot when leg is extended; can flex knee when foot is dorsiflexed

- Spans knee to ankle


- Broad, flat muscle, deep to gastrocnemius on posterior surface of calf

- Plantar flexes foot; important locomotor and postural muscle during walking, running and dancing

Flexor digitorum longus

- Long, narrow, deep muscle of posterior leg

- Plantar flexes and inverts foot; flexes toes; helps foot "grip" ground

Prime Mover: Sternocleidomastoid

Synergist: Scalenes

Antagonist: Trapezius

Neck Flexion Muscle Groups (SST)

Same as Neck Rotation. Opposite to Neck Extension.

Prime Mover: Rectus Abdominus

Synergist: External Obliques

Antagonist: Erector Spinae

Trunk Flexion Muscle Groups (REE)

Prime Mover: Pectoralis Major
Synergist: Deltoid or Biceps Brachii
Antagonist: Latissimus Dorsi

Fixator: Trapezius; Serratus Anterior

Shoulder Flexion Muscle Groups (PDBLTS)

Prime Mover: Latissimus Dorsi
Synergist: Teres Major
Antagonist: Pectoralis Major

Shoulder Extension Muscle Groups (LTP)

Prime Mover: Deltoid
Synergist: Supraspinatus
Antagonist: Pectoralis Major; Latissimus Doris; Teres Minor; Teres Major

Shoulder Abduction Muscle Groups (DSPLTT)

Prime Mover: Pectoralis Major
Synergist: Latissimus Doris, Teres Minor
Antagonist: Deltoid

Shoulder Adduction Muscle Groups (PLTD)

Prime Mover: Brachialis
Synergist: Biceps Brachii
Antagonist: Triceps Brachii

Elbow Flexion Muscle Group (BBT)

Prime Mover: Triceps Brachii
Synergist: Anaconeus
Antagonist: Brachialis

Elbow Extension Muscle Group (TAB)

Prime Mover: Iliopsoas
Synergist: Sartorius, Rectus Femoris
Antagonist: Gluteus Maximus

Hip Flexion Muscle Groups (ISRG)

Prime Mover: Gluteus Maximus
Synergist: Hamstrings (Biceps Femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus)
Antagonist: Iliopsoas, Rectus Femoris

Hip Extension Muscle Groups (GHIR)

Prime Mover: Biceps Femoris
Synergist: Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus
Antagonist: Rectus Femoris

Knee Flexion Muscle Groups (BSSR)

Prime Mover: Rectus Femoris

Synergist: Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis

Antagonist: Biceps Femoris

Knee Extension Muscle Groups (RVVB)

Prime Mover: Triceps Surae (Gastrocnemius and Soleus)
Synergist: Flexor Digitorum Longus
Antagonist: Tibialis Anterior

Plantar Flexion (Ankle Extension) Muscle Groups (TFT)

Prime Mover: Tibialis Anterior

Synergist: Extensor Digitorum Longus

Antagonist: Triceps Surae (Gastrocnemius and Soleus)

Dorsiflexion (Ankle Flexion) Muscles Groups (TET)

Prime Mover: Gluteus Medius

Synergist: Gluteus Maximus, Tensor Fascia Lata, Rectus Femoris

Antagonist: Adductors

Hip Abduction Muscle Groups (GGTRA)

Prime Mover: Adductors

Synergist: Pectineus, Gracilis

Antagonist: Gluteus Medius

Hip Adduction Muscle Groups (APGG)

Rectus Abdominis

External Oblique

Internal Oblique

Transversus Abdominis

-Flexes and rotates lumbar region of vertebral column.

Name 4 abdominal muscles and their function.

Bell's Palsy

Sudden weakness in the muscles on one half of the face

- Make expressions

- Insertions are in skin or other muscles, not bones

What is unique about facial muscles? (2)


Muscle that raises lateral corners of mouth toa smile.