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75 Cards in this Set

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Prime Mover (Agonist)


Anatagonists


Synergists

Functional Group Classifications of Muscle (3)

Prime Mover (Agonist)

- Muscle that has the major responsibility for producing a specific movement of that movement


- Ex: Pectoralis major muscle of arm flexion

Antagonists

- Muscles that oppose or reverse a particular movement


- Regulate action of prime mover with resistance (Opposite side of joint)


Ex: Latissimus dorsi of arm flexion


- Can also be prime mover


Ex: Latissimus dorsi of arm extension

Synergists

- Help prime movers by adding extra force to same movement or by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movements

Fixators

- When synergists immobilize a bone or muscle origin so prime mover has stable base

Flexion

A muscle that crosses on the anterior side of a joint produces:

Extension

A muscle that crosses the posterior side of a joint produces:

Abduction

A muscle that crosses on the lateral side of a joint produces:

Adduction

A muscle that crosses on the medial side of a joint produces adduction:

Deltoid


Trapezius

2 Examples of muscles named for their distinctive shapes

Maximus


Minimus


Longus


Brevis

Largest


Smallest


Long


Short




In muscle size means?

Rectus

Naming muscles by the direction of fibers: the fibers run parallel to the midline of the body or the longitudinal axis of a limb bone

Transversus

Naming muscles by direction of fibers: the fibers run at right angles to the longitudinal axis of a limb bone or to midline of body

Oblique

Naming muscles by direction of fibers: the fibers run obliquely to the longitudinal axis of a limb bone or to midline of body

Heads

Ceps, mean?


Each attached to a different origin

Orbicularis Oculi

- Thin, flat sphincter muscle of eyelid; surround rim of the orbit


- Closes eye; produces blinking and squinting; draws eyebrows inferiorly

Orbicularis Oris

- Complicated multilayered muscle of the lips with fibers that run in many different directions; most run circularly


- Closes lips; purses and protrudes lips; kissing and whistling

Masseter

- Powerful muscle that covers lateral aspect of mandibular ramus


- Prime mover of jaw closure; elevates madible

Sternocleidomastoid

- Two-headed muscle located on anterolateral surface of neck


- Flexes and laterally rotates the head

Scalenes

- Located more laterally than anteriorly on neck


- Flexes and rotates neck; elevates first two ribs

Erector Spinae

- Prime mover of back extension


- Extend and laterally flex the vertebral column

Rectus Abdominus

- Medial superficial muscle pair; extend from pubis to rib cage


- Flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column


- Fix and depress ribs, stabilize pelvis during walking, increase intra-abdominal pressure; used in sit-ups and curls

External Oblique

- Largest, most superficial lateral muscle


- Flex vertebral column and aids in rotating trunking and flexing laterally


- Oblique curls

Pectoralis Minor

- Flat, thin muscle directly beneath and obscured by pectoralis major


- Moves rib superiorly or draws scapula forward and downward

Serratus Anterior

- Fan-shaped muscle; lies deep to scapula


- Important in abducting and raising arm, horizontal arm movements


- Rotates scapula so its inferior angle moves laterally and upward


- Pushing, punching, "boxer's muscle"

Trapezius

- Most superficial muscle of posterior thorax


- Adduct scapula, elevate scapula, help extend head


- Shrugging

Pectoralis Major

- Large, fan shaped muscle covering superior portion of chest


- Adducts and medially rotates arm, assists in flexion and extension of arm


- Climbing, throwing, pushing

Deltoid

- Thick, multipennate muscle forming rounded shoulder muscle mass


- Prime mover of arm abduction, antagonist of pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi


- Arm-swinging while walking

Latissimus Dorsi

- Broad, flat, triangular muscle of lower back (lumbar region)


- Prime mover of arm extension; powerful arm adductor; medially rotates arm at shoulder


- Striking a blow, hammering, swimming, rowing, chin-ups

Supraspinatus

- Named for its location on posterior aspect of a scapula


- Initiates abduction of arm


- Helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus, as when carrying a heavy suitcase

Infraspinatus

- Partially covered by deltoid and trapezius; named for scapular location


- Rotates arm laterally


- Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity, stabilizes shoulder joint

Teres Minor

- Small, elongated muscle inferior to infraspinatus


- Rotates arm laterally


- Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity, stabilizes shoulder joint

Teres Major

- Thick, rounded muscle; located inferior to teres minor


- Extends, medially rotates and adducts arm


- Synergist of latissimus dorsi

Triceps Brachii

- Large fleshy muscle; the only muscle of posterior compartment of arm


- Powerful forearm extensor prime mover, antagonist of forearm flexors, assist in arm adduction


- Spans shoulder and elbow joint

Anconeus

- Short, triangular muscle; blended with distal end of triceps on posterior humerus


- Control ulnar abduction during forearm pronation


- Synergist of triceps brachii in elbow extension

Biceps Brachii

- Two-headed fusiform muscle; tendon of long head helps stabilize shoulder joint


- Flexes and supinates forearm, weak flexor of arm at shoulder


- Opening bottle of wine


- Spans shoulder and elbow joint

Brachialis

- Strong muscle that is immediately deep to biceps brachii on distal humerus


- Major forearm flexor (lifts ulna as biceps lift the radius)

Iliopsoas

- Composite of Iliacus and Psoas Major


- Prime mover for thigh flexion, trunk flexion, lateral trunk flexion


- Bowing

Sartorius

- Straplike superficial muscle running obliquely across anterior surface of thigh to knee; longest muscle in body; crosses both hip and knee joints


- Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh; weak knee flexor


- Cross-legged position


- Spans hip and knee joint

Quadriceps Femoris

- Forms the flesh of front and sides of thigh consisting of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis


- Powerful knee extensor used in climbing, jumping, running and rising from seated position

Rectus Femoris

- Superficial muscle of anterior thigh


- Extends leg and flexes thigh at hip


- Spans hip and knee joint

Vastus Lateralis

- Largest head of the quadriceps femoris


- Extends and stabilizes leg

Vastus Medialis

- Forms inferomedial aspect of thigh


- Extends leg

Tensor Fascia Lata

- Enclosed between fascia layers of anterolateral aspect of thigh


- Flexes and abducts thigh; rotates thigh medially

Gluteus Maximus

- Largest and most superficial gluteus muscle; forms bulk of buttock mass


- Major extensor of thigh, laterally rotates and abducts thigh


- Climbing stairs and running

Hamstrings

- Fleshy muscles of the posterior thigh consisting of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus


- Prime movers of thigh extension and knee flexion


- Spans hip and knee joints

Biceps Femoris

- Most lateral muscle of the hamstrings


- Extends thigh and flexes leg; laterally rotates leg, especially when knee is flexed

Semitendinosus

- Lies medial to biceps femoris


- Extends thigh and flexes leg; helps semimembranosus medially rotate leg

Semimembranosus

- Deep to semitendinosus


- Extends thigh and flexes leg; medially rotates leg

Tibialis Anterior

- Superficial muscle of anterior leg; laterally parallels sharp anterior margin of tibia


- Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot; helps support medial longitudinal arch of foot

Extensor digitorum longus

- Unipennate muscle on anterolateral surface of leg; lateral to tibialis anterior muscle


- Prime mover of toe extension; dorsiflexes foot

Triceps Surae

- Refers to muscle pair Gastrocnemius and Soleus that shapes the posterior calf


- Prime movers of ankle plantar flexion

Gastrocnemius

- Superficial muscle of the triceps surae


- Plantar flexes foot when leg is extended; can flex knee when foot is dorsiflexed


- Spans knee to ankle

Soleus

- Broad, flat muscle, deep to gastrocnemius on posterior surface of calf


- Plantar flexes foot; important locomotor and postural muscle during walking, running and dancing

Flexor digitorum longus

- Long, narrow, deep muscle of posterior leg


- Plantar flexes and inverts foot; flexes toes; helps foot "grip" ground

Prime Mover: Sternocleidomastoid

Synergist: Scalenes


Antagonist: Trapezius

Neck Flexion Muscle Groups (SST)


Same as Neck Rotation. Opposite to Neck Extension.

Prime Mover: Rectus Abdominus


Synergist: External Obliques


Antagonist: Erector Spinae

Trunk Flexion Muscle Groups (REE)

Prime Mover: Pectoralis Major
Synergist: Deltoid or Biceps Brachii
Antagonist: Latissimus Dorsi


Fixator: Trapezius; Serratus Anterior

Shoulder Flexion Muscle Groups (PDBLTS)

Prime Mover: Latissimus Dorsi
Synergist: Teres Major
Antagonist: Pectoralis Major

Shoulder Extension Muscle Groups (LTP)

Prime Mover: Deltoid
Synergist: Supraspinatus
Antagonist: Pectoralis Major; Latissimus Doris; Teres Minor; Teres Major

Shoulder Abduction Muscle Groups (DSPLTT)

Prime Mover: Pectoralis Major
Synergist: Latissimus Doris, Teres Minor
Antagonist: Deltoid

Shoulder Adduction Muscle Groups (PLTD)

Prime Mover: Brachialis
Synergist: Biceps Brachii
Antagonist: Triceps Brachii

Elbow Flexion Muscle Group (BBT)

Prime Mover: Triceps Brachii
Synergist: Anaconeus
Antagonist: Brachialis

Elbow Extension Muscle Group (TAB)

Prime Mover: Iliopsoas
Synergist: Sartorius, Rectus Femoris
Antagonist: Gluteus Maximus

Hip Flexion Muscle Groups (ISRG)

Prime Mover: Gluteus Maximus
Synergist: Hamstrings (Biceps Femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus)
Antagonist: Iliopsoas, Rectus Femoris

Hip Extension Muscle Groups (GHIR)


Prime Mover: Biceps Femoris
Synergist: Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus
Antagonist: Rectus Femoris

Knee Flexion Muscle Groups (BSSR)

Prime Mover: Rectus Femoris


Synergist: Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis


Antagonist: Biceps Femoris

Knee Extension Muscle Groups (RVVB)

Prime Mover: Triceps Surae (Gastrocnemius and Soleus)
Synergist: Flexor Digitorum Longus
Antagonist: Tibialis Anterior

Plantar Flexion (Ankle Extension) Muscle Groups (TFT)

Prime Mover: Tibialis Anterior


Synergist: Extensor Digitorum Longus


Antagonist: Triceps Surae (Gastrocnemius and Soleus)

Dorsiflexion (Ankle Flexion) Muscles Groups (TET)

Prime Mover: Gluteus Medius


Synergist: Gluteus Maximus, Tensor Fascia Lata, Rectus Femoris


Antagonist: Adductors

Hip Abduction Muscle Groups (GGTRA)

Prime Mover: Adductors


Synergist: Pectineus, Gracilis


Antagonist: Gluteus Medius

Hip Adduction Muscle Groups (APGG)

Rectus Abdominis


External Oblique


Internal Oblique


Transversus Abdominis




-Flexes and rotates lumbar region of vertebral column.

Name 4 abdominal muscles and their function.

Bell's Palsy

Sudden weakness in the muscles on one half of the face

- Make expressions


- Insertions are in skin or other muscles, not bones

What is unique about facial muscles? (2)

Zygomaticus

Muscle that raises lateral corners of mouth toa smile.