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29 Cards in this Set

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1. prime mover (agonist)


2. antagonist


3. synergist


4. fixator

4 functional groups of skeletal muscle

agonist (prime mover)

muscle that produces a specific movement

antagonist

muscle that opposes, or reverses, a particular movement

synergist

muscle that helps prime movers by adding a little extra force to a movement or by reducing undesirable movements

fixator

synergist muscle that immobilizes a bone or a muscle's origin so that the prime mover has a stable base on which to act

flexion

a muscle that crosses on the anterior side of a joint produces...

extension

a muscle that crosses on the posterior side of a joint produces...

abduction

a muscle that crosses on the lateral side of a joint produces...

adduction

a muscle that crosses on the medial side of a joint produces...

1. circular


2. convergent


3. parallel


4. pennate

4 main fascicle arrangements

circular

fascicular pattern when the fascicles are arranged in concentric rings; ex. orbicularis

convergent

fascicular pattern in which the muscle has a broad origin and its fascicles converge toward a single tendon or insertion; ex. pectoralis major

parallel

fascicular pattern in which the fascicles run along the long axis of the muscle; ex. sartorius (thigh)

fusiform

fascicular pattern characterized by a spindle-shaped muscle with an expanded belly; similar to a parallel pattern; ex. biceps brachii

pennate

fascicular pattern with short fascicles that attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle; like a feather

1. unipennate


2. bipennate


3. multipennate

3 types of pennate muscles

unipennate

type of pennate muscle in which the fascicles insert into only one side of the tendon; ex. extensor digitorum longus (of the leg)

bipennate

type of pennate muscle in which the fascicles insert into the tendon from opposite sides; ex. rectus femoris (of the thigh)

multipennate

type of pennate muscle with multiple "feathers"; ex. deltoid muscle (of the shoulder)

lever

a rigid bar that moves on a fixed point (fulcrum) when a force is applied to it

fulcrum

a fixed point on which a level moves

effort

applied force used to move a load

load

the resistance moved by an effort (applied force)

mechanical advantage

when a load is close to the fulcrum and the effort applied is far from the fulcrum; power lever

mechanical disadvantage

when the load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied close to the fulcrum; speed lever

1. first-class


2. second-class


3. third-class

3 classes of levers

first-class lever

the effort is applied at one end of the lever and the load is at the other, with the fulcrum somewhere in between; power or speed; ex. seesaw

second-class lever

the effort is applied at one end of the lever and the fulcrum is located at the other end, with the load somewhere in between; power; ex. wheelbarrow

third-class lever

the effort is applied between the load and the fulcrum; speed; ex. tweezers