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48 Cards in this Set

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Prime Mover or Agonist
a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement. "leader"
Antagonist
muscles that oppose, or reverse a particular movement.
Synergist
help prime movers by (1)adding a little extra force to the same movement or (2) reducing undesirable or unessasary movements the might occur as the prime mover contracts.
fixators
when the synergist immobilize a bone, or muscle origin.
Circular
this is when the fasicles are arranged in concentric rings. they surrounds external body openings.
Convergent
muscle has a broad origin and its facicles converge toward a single tendon or insertion. such muscle is triangular shaped or fan shaped.
Parallel
type of muscle arrangement.
Fusiform Muscles
spindel shaped muscles Ex: Biceps brachii muscle of the arm
Pennate
Patturn, facicales are short and they attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle. (Penna=Feather)
Lever Systems
Partnerships between the muscular and skeletal systems.
Lever or fulcrum
Is a rigid bar the moves on a fixed point.
Effort
The applied force is used to move redsistance -LOAD-
Mechanical advantage
Conditon that occurs when the load is close to the fulcrum and the effort is applied far from the fulcrum; allows a small effort excerted over a relativly large distance to move a large load over a small distance.
Mehcanical Disadvantage
Condition that occurs when the load is far from the fulcrum and the effot is applied near the fulcrum; the effort applied must be greater than the load to be moved.
First Class-levers
the effort is applied at one end of the lever and the load is at the other, with the fulcrum somewhere between.
Second class-Levers
The effort is applied at the end of the lever and the fulcrum is located at the other, with the load between them.
Third Class-Levers
The effort is applied between the load adn the fulcrum.
Epicranius
Bipartie muscle consiting of the frontals and the occupitals muscles connected to the cranial aponerurosis, the galea aponeurotica; the alternate actions of these two muscles pull scalp forward and backwards.
Frontalis
covers forehead and dome of skull; no bony attachments
Occipitals
Overlies posterior occiput; by pulling on the galea, fixes origin or frontals
Corrugtaor Supercilii
Small muscle; activity associated with that of orbicularus oculi.
Orbicularis Oculi
Thin, tripartie sphincter muscle or eye lid; surrounds rim or orbit.
Zygomaticus
Muscle pair extending diagonally from cheek bone to corner of mouth
Risorius
Slender Muscle inferior and lateral to zygomaticus
Levator Labii Superioris
thin muscle between orbicularis oris and inferior eye margin.
Depressor Labii Inferioris
Small muscle running from mandible to lower lip.
Depressor anguli Oris
complicated, mulitiayered muscle of lips with fiber sthat run in many differnt directions; most run circulary.
Mentails
one of the muscle pair forming a V-shaped muscle mass on chin
Buccinator
thin, horizontal cheek muscle, principal muscle of the cheek; deep to masseter
Platysma
Unpaired,thin, sheetlike superfical neck muscle; not strickly a head muscle, but plays a role in facial expressions
masseter
powerful muscle that covers laeral aspects of mandibular manus
Temporalis
fan-shaped muscle that covers parts of the temporal, frontal and parietal bones.
Medial pterygoid
Deep-two headed muscle that runs along an internal surface of mandiable and is largly concealed by that bone.
Lateral Pterygoid
Deep-two headed muscle; lies superior to medial pterygoid muscle.
Digastric
Consists of two bellies united by an intermediate tendon, forming a V shape under the chin.
Stylohyoid
Slender muscle below angle of jaw; parellels posterior belly of digastric muscle.
Mylohyoid
Flat, triangular muscle just deep to digastric muscle; this muscle pair forms a sling that forms the floor of the anterior mouth.
Geniohyoid
Narrow muscle in contact with its partener medially; runs from chin to hyoid bone.
Sternohyoid
Most medial muscle of the neck; thin superfical except inferiorly, where coverd by sternocleidomastoid.
Sternothyroid
Lateral and deep to sternohyoid.
Omohyoid
Strap like muscle w/ two bellies united by an intermediate tendo; lateral to the sternohyoid.
Thyrohyoid
Appers as a continuation of sternothyroid muscle.
Pharyngeal constrictor
composite of three paired muscles whoose muscle fibers run circulary in pharynx wall; superior muscle is inner most and inferior one is outermost substantial overlap.
Sternocleidomastoid
Two headed muscle located deep tot eh platysma on anterolateral surface of neck; fleshy parts on either side of neck delineate limits of anterior and posterior triangels; key muscular land mark in neck; muscle spasums of these mucles may cause torticollis.
Scalenes
Located more laterally then anteriorly on neck; deep to platysma and sternocleidomasoid.
Splenius
Broad biparties superfical muscle extending from upper thoracic vertebre to skull; capitis portion known as "bandage muscle" becasue it holds down deeper neck muscles.
Erector spinae
pimemover of back extension helps with the bending at the waist.
Lilocostalis
Most lateral muscle group of erector spinae muscles; extend from pelvis to neck