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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
constitutional powers of congress
Levy & collect taxes
Borrow money
Regulate commerce
Establish federal courts
Declare war
Spend & tax for the “general welfare”
Enact such laws as “necessary and proper”
election qualification for congress
House of Representatives: 25 years of age, citizen of US for 7 years, inhabitant of the state from which they are elected
Senate: 30 years of age, citizen of US for 9 years, inhabitant of the state
speaker of the house
Presides over meetings
Appoints members to joint & conference committees
Schedules legislation for floor action
Decides points of order & interprets rules
Refers bills and resolutions to committees
factors that determine how legislators vote
Party affiliation
Interest groups
vice president
Second in command
functions of congress
representing the people
majority and minority leaders
majority party spokesperson
minority spokesperson
no actual authority
carry communications to party & press
head of executive branch
President → Vice President → Cabinet
constitutional powers of the president
Commander in chief
Require opinion in writing from executive officials
Grant reprieves & pardons
Make treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate
Informs Congress on the state of the union
May convene congress (on extraordinary occasions
Commissions all officers of the US
Receives representatives of foreign governments
Faithfully execute the laws
election qualifications for the president
must be natural born citizen
at least 35 years of age
must have resided in the US for at 14 years
electoral college
All the electors who vote for president and vice president
538 electors- need 270 to win
emergency power of the president
Power to do what he needs to do in a time of great need
executive orders
Relates to departments, what the president does administratively
limits on presidential powers
Judicial actions
Congressional limitations
The media
The bureaucracy
Public opinion
An administrative system which carries out policy – uses standardized procedures, based on specialization of duties
functions of the bureaucracy
Administers the policies of government
Introduce specialized knowledge
Decision making on the basis of rules and objective standards
the executive departments
• The state department
• The treasury department
• The defense department
• The justice department
• The interior department
• The agriculture department
• The commerce department
• The transportation department
• The department of housing and urban development
• The department of health and human services
• Education department
• The energy department
• Veterans affairs department
• Homeland security
federal agencies
administrative units of government appointed by the president
governmental corporations
Government run corps. like Amtrak and the post office
independent regulatory commissions
deal with specific areas
independent central services and control
do general workings of government
the white house staff
immediate advisors
communications specialists
promoters of political supports
lesser staff roles
the executive office of the president
have a policy function
office of management and budget
council of economic advisors
national security council
factors associated with the increase in bureaucratic powers
delegation of power by congress & president
the agency , congressional committee, and interest group triangle
judicial functions
• To settle disputes and conflict
• To administer justice
• Umpire federalism
• Special protection of minority rights
• To communicate
• To make policy
jurisdiction of the federal court system
• Cases arising under the constitution, federal laws and treaties
• Cases involving foreign officials and Maritimes and admiralty laws
• Cases in which the U.S. government is a party
• Cases between two or more states cases between a state and a citizen of another state
• Cases between citizens of different states
• Cases between a state or citizen of a state and a foreign government
constitutional courts
a court that deals primarily with constitutional law
legislative courts
District of Columbia courts
Territorial courts
Tax courts
Court of military appeals
primary sources of american law
• Constitutional law
• Statutory law
• Administrative law
• Case law
• Criminal law
• Civil law
Courts Similarities with Other Branches
Courts decide policy
Judges decide issues by a vote
Interest groups are involved in judicial decision making (amicus curiae)
Courts Dissimilarities with Other Branches
Courts consider only conflict that adversaries bring before them
Judges are appointed for life
Judges are supposed to be impartial
The courts use a jury system (grand jury & trial jury)
Override lower courts
Constitution does not list powers
No constitutional qualifications
Decisions made in secret
Types of Resolutions
the power or right vested in one branch of a government to cancel or postpone the decisions, enactments, etc., of another branch, especially the right of a president, governor, or other chief executive to reject bills passed by the legislature.
The incumbent, in politics, is the existing holder of a political office.
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a political party
a legislative provision that directs funds to be spent on specific projects
pork barreling
Pork barrel is the appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district.
franking privilege
The franking privilege refers to the right of members of Congress to send mail to their constituents at the government's expense.
marginal district
Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically with less than 55 percent of the vote.
safe district
A safe district is a legislative district in which the likely voters support one political party or the other by an overwhelmingly large margin.
pocket veto
A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver in lawmaking that allows a president or other official with veto power effectively to exercise that power over a bill by taking no action.
line-item veto
The line-item veto, or partial veto, is a special form of veto that authorizes a chief executive to reject particular provisions of a bill enacted by a legislature without vetoing the entire bill.
legislative veto
A legislative veto exists in governments that separate executive and legislative functions if actions by the executive can be rejected by the legislature.
prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system.
bully pulpit
A bully pulpit is a position sufficiently conspicuous to provide an opportunity to speak out and be listened to.
Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
authorization legislation
A bill that creates a new federal program, extends the life of an existing program, or repeals existing law
money designated for a specific purpose by a state or federal legislature.
judicial restraint
Judicial restraint is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power.
activist approach
An activist approach is when you take steps to make a change. For example, the Supreme Court has been accused of taking an activist approach to the law. They have actively created laws on their own.
stare decisis
“Let the decision stand” or allowing prior rulings to control the current case
senatorial courtesy
President wants to appoint district judge, asks senior senator’s opinion
class action
a legal action undertaken by one or more plaintiffs on behalf of themselves and all other persons having an identical interest in the alleged wrong
authority and influence over others
seeking and effectively using power to make decisions on how our resources will be allocated
the administrative organization with authority to govern a political state
amendements 1-10
1- The people are allowed to practice any religion, press, speak freely, assembly, and petition.
2-You can bare arms.
3-Soldiers can not stay in people house's without their consent.
4-The government cannot just come into people's house and search and take their belongings without a search warrant.
5-Due process of law-going through the steps of legal proceedings. Prohibits double jeopardy- you cant be tried twice for the same crime until there is new evidence.
6-In all criminal trials, you have the right to a speedy and impartial trial.
7-Trial by jury in certain civil cases
8-Prohibits excessive fines or bans. Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment.
9-the rights not specifically granted to the people in the Bill of Rights, still belong to the people.
10-limits the powers of the federal government to those powers listed in the Constitution.
amendement 11-27
11-prohibits federal courts from hearing cases lodged against a state by a citizen of another state
12-requires that choices for president and vice president be designated as such
13-abolished slavery
14-defined citizenship
15-right to vote can't be denied because of race
16-federal income tax
17- senators can be elected directly by people
19- women's right to vote
20-president and vice president begin jan 20, congress begin jan 3
21-repealed 18
22- 2 terms for presidents
23- dc is given right to vote
24-prohibits tax as requirement to vote
25- presidential succesion
26-voting age 18
27- congress can't increase salary
Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area
by being born, everyone belongs to groups citizens participate through their leaders.
society divided into the few with power and the masses without
individual participation in the decision making process with the majority ruling the minority and the minority has the right to try and become the majority
representative democracy
when people elect officials to make decisions for them in government
pure democracy
when everyone takes part in making decisions
majority rule
public policy set by the wishes of the majority
political science
the study of power and government
the study of who gets what,when,how, and why
the articles of confederation
nation's first, short lived constitution. it established a confederate model of government .
declaration of independence
first formal american state paper
- set forth ideas and reflects the standards of the american creed
an alliance among independent states
separation of powers
no one branch have total power, they do different tasks
checks and balances
every branch has power of other branches making sure one doesn't get too powerful
judicial review
supreme court making decisions on what is constitutional or not
articles of constitution
1- stated the powers of the three branches
2-executive branch
3-judicial branch
4-inter-state relations
5-amending the constitution
6- national debts, supremacy
7-ratifying the constitution
civil rights
those government rights that may not deny b/c of race,gender,ethnicity and other various characteristics
13th and 14th amendement
mass media (functions)
communication of information
gate keeper- emphasizes big issues/ downplay non-important
watchdog- our eyes and ears
civil liberties
the rights and protections a society guarantees to everyone.

( 1st,4th,5th,6th, and 7th amendments)
brown vs board of education
a landmark court case in the 1950s which put an end to segregation. Overturned plessy v ferguson
plessy vs ferguson
a landmark court case which set the precedent for legal segregation "separate but equal"
public opinion
the opinion of the mass public
political socialization
study of the developmental processes by which children and adolescents acquire political cognition, attitudes, and behaviors
motor voter act of 1993
let people register to vote in the dmv
amendment 26 of the constitution
general election
In a parliamentary system, a general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.
primary election
A primary election is an election that narrows the field of candidates before an election for office.
referendum election
A referendum is a process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by a legislature.
initiative election
In political terminology, the initiative is a process that enables citizens to bypass their state legislature by placing proposed statutes and, in some states, constitutional amendments on the ballot.
recall election
Recall is a procedure that allows citizens to remove and replace a public official before the end of a term of office.
political party
Political Parties are the association of voters with broad, common interests who want to influence or control decision-making in government by electing the parties candidates to public office.
In politics, an independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party.
a group of people connected by a shared belief or opinion within a larger group
interest groups
An interest group (also called an advocacy group, lobbying group, pressure group, or special interest) is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, that is determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. The textbook used in class defines this as "An organization of people with shared ideas and attitudes who attempt to influence public policy."
A legal rule stating who is authorized to start a lawsuit