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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Jim Crow Laws
segregates south
separate but equal
Woodrow Wilson segregated White House
Reversing Jim Crow Laws
Proved that accomodations were not equal--started in law schools and said can't be equal because social network is smaller for blacks--professional education was first line of integration
The Depression and Integration
depression hurt integration--whites didn't want blacks taking jobs and had money things to worry about over integration--blacks suffered more in depression
WWII and integration
draft was integrated so when soldiers came back segregation seemed dumb--pushes democrats to support civil rights
Brown v. Board of education
fact that girl had to walk further to go to school sends message to black kids that they are inferior--first time in history that court allows psychological testimony--says separate but equal is NOT equal
Inequality in voting
White primary
literacy test
poll tax
grandfather test
white primary and inequality
white primary=unconstitutional--political parties are not governmental organizations, but their purpose is ot organize and control government--court rules that because they pass election laws, they must be integrated otherwise not equal
literacy test and inequality
not unconstitutional in itself, but all people must be given same literacy test and they were not
poll tax and inequality
not unconstituional in itself, but all must be charged the same and they were not
grandfather test
if your grandfather voted, you didn't have to show your previous receipts, otherwise you had to pay poll tax for every year you were eligible to vote, even if you didn't, and had to present the recepits for them--most blacks couldn't pay all the years, and didn't vote in all of them, and they added penalties for each year you didn't pay which meant that most blacks could never pay to vote
gandafther test and inequality
most states chose dates for when your grandfather had to vote that were before the passing of the 13th amendment so clearly they couldn't vote which meant that all blacks had to pay poll taxes which excluded them--first thing to go
1st civil rights act (1957)
watered down, but encouraged activits--sepcifically college students
high profile encuragement of activists
major league baseball--jackie robinson
hollywood--puts out movies about it and with black actors
new coverage--nation finally saw adverse effects of segregation, built sympathy for the movement
1964 civil rights acts
being moved through when JFK was shot so Johnson passed it on pathos--prohibits discrimination in education, hiring/firing, public service and transportation, created EEOC to define discrimination--included no gender discrimination clause (rep. thought it would stall bill)--estblished affirmative action--not effective without 1965 voting rights act
1965 voting rights acts
gave minorities a voice so state governments could no longer ignore discrimination--allowed gov't to take over voter registration and balloting--made civil rights act effective--gave fed. gov't right to oversee reedistricting and certify elections
Johnson's affirmative action
came as executive order to gov't things--recruit and educate minorities and women into professional education--wanted professional population to look like demogaphic population--recruited at all levels of education--since it only applied to gov't things Johnson made tax breaks for companies with the program and said all higher edu. receiving fed. money to have one
affirmative action in education
school implementing programs established quotas, then quotas determined to be unconstitutional so courts decided it's better to define applicants THEN look at racial, econ, etc--recently CA passed a referendum saying state schools and businesses can't look at demographic at all
civil rights movement's effect on other movements
model for women's rights, etc.
organization of legislative branch
2 houses--house and senate
house elected every 2 years, senate elected every 6
congress gets a new number every 2 years--bills usually die becuase not enough time to ratify
organization of house
435 people
majority party has most seats in all committees
committees headed by committee chair--always of majority party
committees used to screen legislation
speaker of the house
assign bills and members to committees
pick committee chairs
manage resources of chamber
party leaders of the house
majority and minority leader
elected by party caucus
job is to move party agenda through chamber
whips of the house
majority and minority
job is to poll reps to get a headcount of who supports what and make sure people either show up to vote or have better things to do
policy committee of house
helps keep agenda focused on party interests
president of senate
VP of country
casts deciding vote in a tie
no other formal powers becuase not elected by senate so they don't want him to have power
president pro tempore in senate
traditionally most senior memeber of majority party
no powers, just recognition
committee chairs in senate
fewer committees in Senate than in House
most senior member of majority party serving on the commimmittee is chair--means chair is not controlled by committee
can control committee agenda
controls committee resources
organization of senate
100 people
only 1/3 of it is up for election at each time--provides continuity in senate
rules make everybody more equal
committee assignments in senate
openings go first to sitting members who want to switch and have the right party
seconds go to new members who request them
party leaders in senate
ateempt to persuade committee chair to move their agenda through the chamber--trade votes
majority leader=most powerful person in senate--elected by party caucus
whips in senate
count votes
make sure people show up to vote
president's options with a bill if senate is NOT in session
accept: sign bill

reject: ignore bill for 10 days (pocket veto)
mark up
fine tuning language of legislation, amending it, or changing it to get a higher vote
done in committees/subcommittees
president's option will a bill if they are given to him right before congres adjourns
he has 10 days to deal with a bill or it dies
somebody speaks for a very long time on a bill with the intention of getting it to fail/table or forcing parties to compromise in order to pass it
ex: strom thurmond
oversight function
way for legislative branch to check up on executive branch
ex: annual budget to analyze efficiency
ex: required reporting by heads of executive things (fed. reserve, secretary of state, etc)
prompts congress to either punish organizations or help them fulfill their duties
address problems brought to their attention by public/interest groups
susnet legislation
sunshine legislation
general accounting offic
an amendment attacked to a bill that it really hadn othing in common with in order to pass the amendment or stall/stop the passing of the bill
sunset legislation
any piece of legislation passed has an expiration date for when it has to be renewed\
makes sure congress is checking up on the efficiency of bills
annual budget for gov't
we are the only country operating on a 1-year budget rather than 5-year
congress never finishes budget on time so pass a stop-gap measure
budget supposed to be decided by october
general accounting office
audits all programs for efficiency, effectiveness, and that the intent of the bill is being fulfilled
checks every 5 years
used to determine renewal of bill and appropriations to gov't thing running it
made of staff members, not congressmen
stop-gap measure
says we'll use last years' budget until the new one gets passed
sunshine legislation
opens government records to public
allows individuals and interest groups to investigate operations on their own
helps bring problems to the attention of congress
president's options with a bill if senate is in session
to accept: ignore bill for 10 days or sign bill (sometimes attached with signing statement to show how he interprets bill incase it is 0challenged as unconstitutional

to reject: mark it vetoed and return it to house of origin (usually accompanied by a veto statement if he is willing to sign a changed bill)
president's option will a bill if they are given to him right before congres adjourns
he has 10 days to deal with a bill or it dies
trustee view
ex: george washington
individuals use their own judgment of what is in the best interest of their consituents
just need to be able to explain themselves
see public service as a duty
find solutions to problems in congress
delegate view
ex: strom thurmond
act as direct voice of constituents
bring viewpoint of constituencts to gov't and act only on what they specifically support
see running for office as a tool
bring problems to attention of congress
politico view
ex: hillary clinton
people who like to be in power and see politics as a career
vote in ways that further their career
"power brokers"
get legislation through congress
how to bring issues to congress
interest groups
letters to the editor
townhall meetings
acting as a liason between community and gov't
HUGE with delegates and politicos
help with social security, visas, military schools, etc
get people to be on their side ans spread the word that they're really for the people
law applied the same to all people
access to government/services is equal
equal voice/opportunity for voice for all
equality of condition
basically we are all biologically equal but that doesn't mean we have to be treated equally
all born and all have mothers
we will all die
ex: homeless people
equality of opportunity
no legal barriers to prevent someone from pursuing happiness or success in life
ex: drugs tested only on men, not women
equality of outcome
gov't is taking action to make sure that everyone has the resources to succeed
ex: gov't programs such as affirmative action
fist voting rights
white males property owners of a certain age could vote--designed to make the voices that did participate equal
thought races and women were biologically inferior so couldn't vote
poor white men could not vote because they would be influenced by employers
jacksonian democracy
jackson was popular with people but not gov't so won popular vote but not elected by electoral college
expanded electorate so he could get voted into presidency
now all white men can vote
civil war
fought because of slavery and states rights
abolition was the south's punishment
13th amendment
ends slavery
14th amendment
says states cannot deny any citizen due process or equal protection of the law
15th amendment
says former slaves are citizens and as citizens can vote
plessy v. fergusson
LA passes law that races can't be together in train cars
plessy buys white ticcket but is 1/16th black so arrested for sitting in white car
takes it to court against 14th amendment
court says equal accomodations means they havce to be the same, but ppl don't have to treat you nicely or be by you
4 barriers to voting
poll tax
grandfather clause
literacy test
white primary
poll tax
had to pay tax to vote and show reciept to prove you payed your tax every year you were able to vote for
taxes compounded and had penalties added on that most blacks couldn't pay
literacy test
had to prove you could read the ballot
illegal to educate slaves so no former slaves could pass this
as blacks become more literate, test gets harder for them
white primary
in order to participate in primary you had to be democrat and white
19th amendment
gave women the right to vote
Equal rights Act (ERA)
firs tbill to be introduced to try to get women to vote--failed
Sandra Day o'Connor
first woman on supreme court
Geraldine Ferraro
first woman to run on the national ticket of a major political party
glass ceiling
barrier that women encounter when firms decide who to appoint to top positions
basically men are picked over them
comparable worth
men and women receive the same pay for jobs that are of equal difficulty and involve a similar level of training
Family and medical leave act of 1993
gives up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for women with a new baby or seriously ill family member
Indian bill of rights
give Native Americans on reservations constitutional guarantees similar to those given to other Americans
Lau v. Nichols
courts ruled that placing public chool children for whom english is a second language in regular classrooms without special assitance is a violation of equal opportunity
Romer v. Evans
courts striuck down a colorado constitutional amendment banning legal protections for homosexuals
reasonable basis test
courts requiregov't only to show that a particular law is reasonable and then it can discriminate
does not apply to racial or ethnis classifications
strict-scrutiny test
any law that treats people differently because of race or ethnicity is subject to the test under which wuch a law is presumed unconstitutional in the absence of an overwhelmingly convincing argument that it is necessary
intermediate scruntiny test
laws should be scruntinized more closely than some laws, but not as much as others
de facto discrimination
discrimination that is a consequence of social, economic, ad cultural biaes and conditions
de jure discrimination
discrimination based on law
equality of result
aim of policies intended to reduce de fact discriminatory effects
controversial becuase many american believe that government responsibility extrends no further than the removal of legal berries to equality
pork-barrel projects
legislation that funds a special project for a particular loccale
ex: new highway or hospital
service strategy
responding to constituents individual needs
also called casework
incumbents have an easier time raising funds
most PACs favor incumbents
political action committees
fund-raising arm of interest groups
open-seat election
race without an incumbent
when the seats in the house are reallocated according to population
redrawing election districts, especially when the number of house seats in a state changes--responsibility of state gov't
when new district boundaries are drawn in a way that favor candidates of a certain party
risks to incumbents
-having an election during media attention on disruptive issues
-personal misconduct
-turnout variation--people who vote for the house in the middle of a presidential term often vote along party lines so incumbents don't get the boost they do from being in the same party as the pres.
-strong challengers--particular problem for senate becuase senate seat attract rich people who can spend a lot on campaigning
qualifications to be a house member
25 years old
been a citizen for at least 7 years
must be residents of state where they're elected
qualifications to be a senator
30 years old
been a citizen for at least 9 years
must be residents of state where they're elected
Nancy Pelosi
speaker of the house
standing committees
permanent sommittees in congress with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy--ex: agriculture, transportation
conference committees
joint committees formed temporarily to work out differences between the house and senate versions of a particular bill
select committees
created to perform specific tasks--ex:senate select committee on intelligence which is designed to oversee the work of intelligence agencies like the CIA or FBI
joint committees
composed of members of both houses and perform advisory fundtions--ex: joint committee on the Library oversees the lobrary of congress
proposed legislative act
party discipline
willingness of a party's House of senate member to act as a unified group
introduction of revenue bills
must be in the house
lawmaking function
authority to make laws necessary to carry out the powers granted to the nation gov't
representation function
should representatives play to interests of constituents or nation?
trading one's vote with another member's so that both get what they want