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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dominion of New England
Created by King James II - included New England colonies, New York and New Jersey

In response to colonists noncompliance with Navigation Acts
Salutary Neglect
British policy towards colonies

Characterized by lack of enforcement or interference in colonial govt.
Writs of Assistance
Allowed British officials to search for smuggled goods in a persons home

No evidence required / Illegal search and seizures
Stamp Act
1st direct tax on colonies = tax on all printed materials

$ used to pay for colonial protection

Raised issue of taxation without representation
Sons of Liberty
Secret colonial organization created to oppose enforcement of Samp Act

Attacked tax collectors, homes of British officials
Quartering Act
Colonists forced to house and feed British soldiers

Created to cut down on expense of British soldiers in colonies
Declaratory Act
Same day as Stamp Act

Gave Parliament power to make laws in colonies
Towshend Acts
Tax on glass, lead, paper, tea

$ used to pay for British official in colonies
Boston Massacre
Clash between Boston citizens and British soldiers

Represented growing resentment towards British soldiers in the colonies
Boston Tea Party
Sons of Liberty disguised as Native Americans

Dumped tea into Boston harbor in protest of new tea act

Resulted in Coercive Acts
Coercive Acts
Laws to punish Boston for Tea Party

AKA Intolerable Acts

Closed port of Boston, limited ability for self-government
Quebec Act
Catholic Church in Quebec given special rights

Made colonists angry/nervous that Catholic church would be forced on colonies
First Continental Congress
12/13 colonies met in Phil

Supported Suffolk Resolves = boycot against GB

Called for repeal of Coercive and Quebec Acts
Second Continental Congress
Created Continental Army for American Revolution

Assumed Government Functions
Olive Branch Petition
Message from 2nd Cotinental Congress to King George before American Revolution

Last chance for peace

King did not accept
"Common Sense"
Written by Thomas Paine

Explianed colonists case for Indpendence

Increased support for Independence
Declaration of Independence
Declared and explained colonies reasons for Independence

Based on ideas of John Locke = Natural Rights
Northwest Ordinance
After American Revolution

Established process in which territories became states
Favored strong central govt / Constitution

Federal Power over State Power

Also name of political party in 1790's (John Adams)
Opposed Constitution because it favored wealthy

State Power over Federal Power
"The Federalist Papers"
Essays explaining / defending the Constitution

Examined failures of Articles of Confederation and need for strong central govt
Political party = emerged out of Anti-Federalists

Appposed Hamilton's Economic Program

US = Nation of small farmers

Thomas Jefferson / James Madison
Sedition Act
Against the law to criticize the govt

Goal = limit popularity and growth of the Democrat-Republicans
Alien Act
President had power to deport aliens considered to be dangerous
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Declared Alien / Sedition Acts unconstitutional

Started idea of States Right to nulligy unconstitutional laws
Revolution of 1800
Used to describe the election of Thomas Jefferson

1st transtion from of power from one party to another

Federalists (John Adams) to Democrat-Republicans (Thomas Jefferson)
Midnight Judges
Federalist Judges appointed by John Adams during last days before Jefferson took over presidency

Offical name Judicary Act 1801

Led to Marbury v. Madison
War Hawks
Memebers of Congress who wanted war against GB (War of 1812)

Led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
Hartford Convention
Representatives from New England States

Opposed War of 1812 / Death of Federalists

Discussed changes to Constitution
Era of Good Feelings
Phrase used to describe presidency of James Monroe

Only 1 political patry - death of Federalists in 1816

Election of 1820 = Monroe ran unopposed

Strong nationalist period following War of 1812
Missouri Compromise 1820
Temporarily maintained balance between slave and free states

Missour = slave state / Maine = free state

Slavery prohibited north of 36/30 line
Corrupt Bargain
Accusation made by A. Jackson regarding election 1824

Election decided by House of Representatives

Henry Clay supported John Quincy Adams in return for being named Secretary of State
Spoils System
Provided jobs for supporters of victorious presidential candidates

Introduced during Jackson's presidency

Contributed to corruption in govt
Nullification Crisis
South Carolina passed nullification of Tariff on 1828 / 1832 and threatened secession

Pres. Jackson response = No state could refuse to obey law

Compromise made after threat of military use agaisnt SC
Bank Veto
Pres Jackson agaisnt recharter of Second Bank of US

Jackson claimed bank was unconstitutional

Became known as "Bank War"
Whig Party
Mixture of Southern Planters, Northern Industrialists, Anti-Jackson Democrats

Referred to Jackson as "King Jackson"
Kitchen Cabinet
Close groups of friengs - advised president Andrew Jackson

No formal Cabinet meetings were held
Webster-Hayne Debate
Congressional Debate

Example of growing sectinalism

Hayne criticised north = Tariffs / Oppostion to War of 1812

Webster criticized south = nullification
Maysville Road Veto
Pres. Jackson veto = construction of Kentucky road

Believed states should pay for own improvements

Henry Clay = supported bill / internal improvements
Second Party System
Democrats / Whigs = 2 dominant political parties

Democrats = South / West, middle class / workers / imigrants

Whigs = New England / Mid West, wealthy / Plantation Owners
Underground Railroad
1830 - 1865 - system of safe houses assisting runaway slaves

Harriet Tubman = notable leader

South angry = Fugitive Slave Act never enforced
Annexation of Texas
Texas requested annexation after independence from Mexico

Problem = Texas would upset balance of free / slave states

Democrat James Polk elected on campaign to annex Texas
Wilmot Proviso
Proposed Amendment to prohibit slavery in territory acquired through Mexican Cession

Never became law

Free-Soil and Rep Party both opposed expansion of slavery
Free-Soil Party
Opposed expansion of slavery in all new territories

Former president Martin Van Buren ran in election 1848
Popular Sovereignty
Idea that the people living in each territory should decide free or slave state for themselves

Major componet of Compromise 1850 and Kansas-Nebraska Act

Poetentially oppened all new territories to slavery
Compromise of 1850
Solved dispute over territories acquired from Mexican-American War

California added as Free / Popular Sovereignty for New Mexico and Utah territories / Slave trade abolished in D.C./ Stronger Fugitive Slave Act
Fugitive Slave Act
Part of Compromise of 1850

Allowed federal officers to return runaway slaves

Fines / Jail for aiding runaway slaves

Enforcement resisted by North
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Repealed Missouri Compromise (1820)

Opened lands previously closed to slavery

Kansas and Nebraska open to popular sovereignty
Republican Party
Formed out of Northern Whigs and Democrats opposed to Kansas-Nebraska Act

Opposed expansion of slavery

Supported high tariffs to protect industry
Bleeding Kansas
Violent conflict between pro and anti slavery groups in Kansas

Cuased by popular sovereignty and Kansas-Nebraska Act

Events included Senator Cane beating, Pottawatomie Massacure
Dred Scott Decsion
Supreme Court ruled slaves = property

Slave had no rights in court
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Abraham Lincoln (Rep) v. Stephen Douglas (Dem)

Caused a split between Northern and Southern Democrats
John Brown's Raid
Attack on Federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry led by John Brown

Plan = use weapons to start slave revolt in Virginia

Group captured, tried, executed / Brown = Martyr

South convinced the North was behind the plan
Crittenden Compromise
Last attempt for a compromise before Civil War

Extended Missouri Compromise to Pacific Coast

Limited power of Congress to interfere with slavery
Process of Secession
South Carolina = 1st after election of 1860

Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas = Jan/Feb 1861

Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia after attack on Fort Sumter April 1861
Border States
Slave states that did not secede

Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri

Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to them
Fort Sumter
Federal military post in South Carolina

Confederacy demanded surrender of forth and attacked

Viewed as immediate cause of Civil War
Wade-Davis Bill
Post Civil War

Early Congressional plan for reconstruction - blocked by Lincoln

Loyalty Oaths, Slavery prohibited in new constitutions
Andrew Johnson Reconstruction
Similar to Lincoln

New state govts must abolish slavery, elect new members to Congress
Civil Rights Act 1866
Defined citizen = any person born in US

Citizenship not based on race / color

Vetoed by Pres. Andrew Johnson
Military Reconstruction
Congress divided South into 5 military districts with military governors

Forced constitutional convention, universal male suffrage, recognize blacks right to vote

Ratify 14th Amendment
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
Pres. Johnson fired Sec.War Edwin Stanton

Violated tenure Office Act

1 vote short
Tweed Ring
Political Machine led by "Boss" Tweed

Used influence to steal millions

Gave food, aid to immigrants in exchange for votes
Credit Moblier Scandal
Fake corporation used to steal $ from govt railroad contracts

Members of Congress took bribes

Part of the corruption during Ulysses S. Grant's presidency
Compromise of 1877
Resolved election of 1876

Rutherford Hayes (Rep) given presidency in exchange for an end to military reconstructon, $ for internal improvements in south
Pendelton Civil Service Reform Act
Developed competitive exams for federal job openings

Goal to limit coruption in govt.
Populist Party
Powerful Third Party - represented farmers interests

Goals = Free Silver, Railroad regulation, graduated income tax, direct election senator, 8 hr work day
Meat Inspection Act
Response to meat packing industry described in "The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair

Provided for inspections and sanitary regulation
Pure Food and Drug Act
Prohibited adulteration and improperly labeling of food and drugs
Direct Primary
Progressive reform - started at state level

Allowed voters to select candidate to run in general election

Created to challenge political machines
Initiative / Referendum / Recall
Progressive reform - started at state level

1. ability to pub something on the ballot
2. citizens vote on proposed or enacted laws
3. ability for voters to remove an elected official
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt

Govt. regulation of business
Control of monopolies
Limit corporations influence in govt
Conservation of resources
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson

Eliminate trusts / restore competition
Worried about expansion of govt power
More responsibility to the states
Progressive Party
Powerful Third Party

Supported strong Fed govt, women's suffrage, min wage, protective tariff, regulation of business

Party failed, but ideas lived on
Espionage Act
Penalties for interence with draft, aiding enemy

Govt. = power to remove dangerous material from mail

Goal - silence opposition to WWI
Sedition Act
Made it illegal to print anything false or scandalous

Supreme Court ruled it did not violate Freedom Speech

Goal - silence opposition to WWI
Palmer Raids
Round up of suspected radicals / communists

Led by Attorney General A. Mitchel Palmer

Caused by anti-foreign sentiment after WWI, labor conflicts, bombings
Teapot Dome Scandal
Sec.Interior Albert Fall - leased govt oil reserves to private companies

Fall took bribe

During Warren Harding's presidency
Fireside Chats
Radio broadcasts of FDR during Great Depression

Explained banking holiday and Emergency Banking Relief Act

Helped to restore confidence during depression
Townsend Plan
Old age pension / Dr. Francis Townsend

60+ recieve $200 per month / must spend $ each month

Similar idea to Social Security
Share Our Wealth
Sen. Huey Long

$5K to every American family

Paid for by high income taxes on the rich
America First Committee
Isolationist group leading up to WWII

Focus = build up US defense in case of attack

Disbanded after attack on Pearl Harbor
Selective Service Act
1st peacetime draft in US history

Men ages 21-36 registered / serve 12 months

1941 age lowered to 18 / serve 18 months
Fairl Employment Practices Committee
Executive order to prohibit discriminaton in defense industries

Race, creed, color or national origin

Created in response to threatened march on Washignton
Loyalty Program
Creted by Pres. Truman in response to 2nd Red Scare after WWII

Federal employees investigated
National Security Act
Reorganized intellegence agencies after WWII

National Security Council and CIA were established

Department of Defense control military (Army/Navy/Air Force)
Fair Deal
Pres. Truman's domestic program

Civil Rights, national health insurance, public housing, increase in min wage, expansion Social Security

Litmited success / Republicans resisted
Checkers Speech
Vice Pres. Nixon - response to charge that he used campaign contributors for personal matters

Live on TV - Checkers name of dog given by supporters

Dog was only gift and he refused to give it back
Anti-Communist hysteria - led by Sen Joseph McCarthy

Fear of communists taking over Federal government

Led to civil liberties violations, arrests, deportations
Civil Rights Act 1957
1st significant civil rights legislation since Reconstruction

Established Civil Rights Division of Justice Department

Civil Rights Commission = investigate voter interference
National Aeronautics and Space Administratio

Created in response to launching of Sputnik

Apollo Program = $billions for man on moon = 11 yrs
New Frontier
JFK's domestic and foreign policy

Economic expansion, relief for the poor, space exploration, civil rights, Cold War defense
Desegregation of University of Mississippi
James Meredith - denied admission

Supreme Court ordered admission / JFK sent federal marshals to enforce rulling

Violence broke out - 20K troops sent in
Civil Rights Act 1964
Prohibited discrimination in public places

Prohibited discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin

Created EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
Established 1964 - challenged regular Dem party in state

Sent own delegates to National Convention in oppostion to the state's all-white delegates
Great Society
LBJ campiagn slogan 1964 electin and domestic program

Goals = end poverty, improve public education, expand health coveragge, urban development

Expanded role of Fed govt / extended New Deal tradition
Voting Rights Act
Prohibited literacy tests

Federal official registered voters in south

Dramatic increase in African-American voter registration
1968 Democratic National Convention
Massive anti-war protest in Chicago

"Police Riot" blamed on Chicago mayor Richard Daley

Major oppostion to Dem. view on Vietnam
New Federalism
Pres. Nixon's policy of shifting funding and responsibility from Fed govt to state and local govts

$ provided through revenue sharing
Watergate Burlary
5 men arrested for breaking into Dem. Natl Comm headquarter in DC

Men were involved in Nixon's reelection campaign

Nixon and top aids obstructed investigation
Pres. Nixon's Resignation
Supreme Court ordered Nixon to release Oval Office tapes

Nixon up for Impeachment on obstruction of justice

Nixon resigned Aug 8, 1974