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25 Cards in this Set

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What is schizophrenia?

- a severe mental illness where contact with reality and insight are impaired, an example of psychosis


- 1% of population;men>women


- symptoms interfere with everyday tasks

What is the classification of mental disorders?

- process of organising symptoms into categories based on which symptoms cluster in sufferers

What is the ICD-10?

The World Health Organisation's International Classification of Disease edition 10

What is the DSM-5?

American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual edition 5

How does the classification of schizophrenia differ between ICD-10 and DSM-5?

DSM-5: one positive symptom (delusions/hallucinations) must be present


ICD-10: 2+ negative symptoms (flattened affect) must be present


- ICD-10: recognises subtypes of schizophrenia

What are the three subtypes of schizophrenia classified by ICD-10?

Paranoid schizophrenia: characterised by powerful delusions and hallucinations


Hebephrenic schizophrenia: characterised primarily by negative symptoms


Catatonic schizophrenia: disturbance to movement;suffer immobile/overractive

What are positive symptoms?

- atypical symptoms experienced in addition to normal experiences.


- include hallucinations and delusions

What are hallucinations?

- type of positive symptom of schizophrenia


- sensory experiences of stimuli that have no basis in reality/distorted perceptions of things


- e.g hearing voices/seeing things that are not there

What are delusions?

- type of positive symptom of schizophrenia


- beliefs that have no basis in reality e.g. sufferer is someone else or is a victim of a conspiracy (being Jesus)

What are negative symptoms?

- atypical experiences that represent loss of a usual experience e.g. clear thinking or 'normal' levels of motivation.


- e.g. avolition/speech poverty

What is avolition?

- type of negative symptom of schizophrenia


- loss of motivation to carry out tasks and results in lowered activity levels


Andreason: three identifying signs=poor hygiene/lack of persistence in work/lack of energy

What is speech poverty?

- type of negative symptom of schizophrenia


- reduced frequency and quality of speech


DSM-5: emphasises speech disorganisation=positive symptom

What are the evaluation points of the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?

- reliability


- validity


- co-morbidity


- symptom overlap


- gender bias in diagnosis


- cultural bias in diagnosis

What is the definition of reliability in terms of the diagnosis of schizophrenia?

- extent to which two or more mental health professionals get the same diagnosis for the same patient

What is the 'reliability' evaluative point of the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?

Elie Cheniaux: two psychiatrists diagnose 100 patients with ICD/DSM=poor inter-rater reliability (DSM=26;ICD=44) vs (DSM=13;ICD=24)=reliability low

What is criterion validity?

Cheniaux: When assessment systems come to the same diagnosis for the same patient

What is the 'validity' evaluative point of the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?

- schizophrenia is more diagnosed with ICD than DSM=over/under diagnosed


- validity low

What is co-morbidity?

- two or more conditions occur together

What is the 'co-morbidity' evaluative point of the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?

- questions validity of classification and diagnosis (might be single condition)


Buckley: 1/2 diagnosed schizophrenics also diagnosed with depression

What is the 'symptom overlap' evaluative point of the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?

- schizophrenia and bipolar disorder=positive symptoms (delusions)/negative (avolition)


-questions validity


- under ICD=schizophrenic;under DSM=bipolar


- may be one condition

What is the 'gender bias in diagnosis' evaluative point of the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?

Longnecker: studies of schizo prevalence=since 1980s men>women diagnosis


- men may be genetically vulnerable


- females function better=bias practitioners to under-diagnose

What is the 'cultural bias in diagnosis' evaluative point of the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?

- Africans>white people (schizo diagnosis)


- rates in Africa not high=not genetic


- + symptoms (hearing voices) accepted in African culture=report to psychiatrist in Western culture=bizarre


Escobar: mainly white psychiatrists over-interpret symptoms/distrust honesty of black people in diagnosis

What is the genetic basis of schizophrenia?

- runs in family;weak evidence (share environ.)


- twin studies: up genetic similar=up risk


- many genes linked to inheritance


- polygenic/aetiologically heterogeneous

What did Ripke find about the genetic basis of schizophrenia?

- study combining data from genome studies


- 37,000 patients vs 113,000 controls


- 108 genetic variations identified


- effect on neurotransmitter functioning

How are neurotransmitters involved in the dopamine hypothesis?

- brain chemical messengers work different in schizophrenic brain e.g. dopamine (important in function of brain systems=symptoms)