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164 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of crime?

- an action that breaks the law and when convicted by the court warrants punishment e.g. prison time

What are the cultural issues with defining crime?

- A crime in one culture may not be a crime in another culture e.g. forced marriage

What are the historical issues with defining crime?

- Definitions of crime change over time e.g. Homosexuality in the UK up until 1967

What are the ways to measure crime?

- official statistics


- victim surveys


- offender surveys

What are official statistics?

- quantitative data based on crime reported/recorded by police


- used by govt. to inform crime prevention strategies

What are the strengths and weaknesses of official statistics?

- many crimes not reported; 25% offences in official stats = unreliable


- police may decided crime is not worth reporting

What are victim surveys?

- questionnaire asks sample of people what crimes committed against them over period of time/if reported


- e.g. annual Crime Survey for England and Wales

What are the strengths and weaknesses of victim surveys?

- includes unreported crime=greater accuracy than official stats


- e.g. official stats show crime rate 2% down vs Crime survey shows 3% up


- rely on victims accurate recall=distort figures

What are offender surveys?

- self-report where people record the number/types of crime they committed over specific period


- target 'likely offenders' (prev. convictions/age range/social background)


- insight to how many people responsible for certain offences

What are the strengths and weaknesses of offender surveys?

- hide more serious offences/exaggerate=unreliable


- targeted=certain crimes overrepresented


- middles class offences unlikely added

What are the evaluation points of measurements of crime?

- politics of measuring crime


- multidisciplinary approach

What is the politics of measuring crime evaluative point of measuring crime?

- political party in opposition insist crime increasing/party in power=crime falling


- crime stats compiled by independent body, validity still questioned

What is the multidisciplinary approach evaluative point of measuring crime?

- issues in reliability/validity of data methods produce


- crime figures carefully scrutinised/interpreted


- use all available methods=best insight to true extent of offending

What is offender profiling?

- behavioural/analytical tool intended to help investigators accurately predict/profile characteristics of unknown criminals

What is the top-down approach?

- US approach


- profilers start with a pre-existing template and work down to put offenders in one of two categories based on witness accounts/crime scene evidence

What are the categories in the top-down approach based on?

- serious criminals have a signature crime=correlate to set of social/psychological characteristics

What are the characteristics of an organised offender?

- shows evidence of planning


- targets victim


- socially/sexually competent


- above average IQ


- usually married with children

What are the characteristics of a disorganised offender?

- little evidence of planning


- leaves clues


- socially/sexually incompetent


- below average IQ


- lives alone


- close to offence

What are the four stages to constructing an offender profile?

- Data assimilation(review evidence)


- crime scene classification(organised/disorganised)


- crime scene reconstruction (hyptheses of sequence of events, victim behaviour etc.)


- profile generation (hypotheses related to likely offender)

What are the evaluation points of the top-down approach?

- only applies to particular crimes


- based on outdated models of personality


- evidence does not support the 'disorganised offender'


- classifications too simplistic


- original sample

What is the only applies to particular crimes evaluative point of the top-down approach?

- best suited to crime scenes that show key details about suspect


- common offences=burglary can't be profiled=crime scene reveals little about offender


- limited approach/can't be applied to all crime

What is the based on outdated models of personality evaluative point of the top-down approach?

- typology based on assumption offenders have consistent behaviour patterns


- critics: approach naive/old fashioned=dispositional traits than external factors


- poor validity in identifying suspects/predicting

What is the evidence doesn't support the 'disorganised offender' evaluative point of the top-down approach?

Canter: smallest space analysis;analysed 100 murder data in US;reference to 39 characteristics of (dis)organised offenders;distinct organised type, not disorganised


- undermines classification system

What is the classifications too simplistic evaluative point of the top-down approach?

- behaviours of categories not mutually exclusive


Godwin: how investigators class high IQ who kills randomly=prompted more detailed models


Holmes: 4 types of serial killer:visionary/mission/hedonistic/power


Keppel/Walter: different motives killers might have

What is the original sample evaluative point of the top-down approach?

- typology developed using 36 interview with killers


- too small/unrepresentative to base typology system


Canter: not rely of self-report data with convicted killers when making class system

What is the bottom-up approach?

- profilers work up from crime scene evidence to develop hypotheses about likely characteristics, motivations and social background of the offender

What are the two forms of the bottom-up approach?

- investigative psychology


- geographical profiling

What is investigative psychology?

- match crime scene details with statistical analysis of typical offender behaviour patterns


- interpersonal coherence: how an offender behaves at the crime scene reflects their behaviour in everyday situations


- time/place may indicate offender residence

What is geographical profiling?

- first used by Kim Rossmo


- based on spatial consistency: offender's base/future offences revealed by prev crimes (crime mapping)


- used with psych theory=hypotheses


- serial offenders=familiar areas=centre of gravity/jeopardy surface

What is Canter's circle theory of the bottom-up approach?

- there are two models of offender behaviour:


Marauder: operates close to home base


Commuter: travel away from residence


- offending forms circle around usual residence


- more offences=more apparent


- insight into offence nature and offenders age etc.

What are the evaluation points of the bottom-up approach?

- evidence supports investigative psychology


- evidence supports geographical profiling


- scientific basis


- wider application


- mixed results for profiling

What is the evidence supporting investigating psychology of the bottom-up approach?

Canter/Heritage: content analysis 66 sexual assaults;smallest space analysis=correlates behaviour patterns;common characteristics identified


- find offences by same criminal;behaviour changes across offences

What is the evidence supporting geographical profiling of the bottom-up approach?

Lundrigan/Canter: 120 serial killer murders (US);smallest space analysis=spatial consistency, creating centre of gravity;effect more noticeable for marauders


- supports spatial info key to determining offender base

What is the scientific basis evaluative point of the bottom-up approach?

- Canter claims more objective/less speculative


- advanced AI, manipulate geo/bio/psych data=results assist investigation


- includes suspect interviewing/examination of court material=supports use in court

What is the wider application of the bottom-up approach?

- applied to wide range of offences


- smallest space analysis/spatial consistency used in investigation of petty and serious offences

What is the mixed results for profiling evaluative point of the bottom-up approach?

- studies examining effect of offender profiling produced mixed results


Copson: 48 police surveys=advice by profiler 83% useful;3% lead to accurate identification of offender


Kocsis: chemistry students more accurate offender profile than experiences detectives

What are the biological explanations of offending behaviour?

- atavistic form


- genetic and neural explanations

What is atavistic form?

Lombroso: offending due to individuals genetic throwbacks/primitive subspecies


- can't conform to modern society


- criminal have distinguishable facial/cranial features

What are the atavistic characteristics?

- narrow brow, strong jaw, high cheekbones,dark skin


Murderers: bloodshot eyes, curly hair


Sexual deviants: glinting eyes, swollen lips


- other aspects e.g. pain insensitivity, criminal slang, tattoos etc.

What was Lombroso's research into the atavistic form?

- examined facial/cranial features of 383 dead/3839 living criminals


- 40% criminal acts accounted for by atavistic characteristics

What are the evaluation points of the atavistic form?

- contribution to criminology


- scientific racism


- contradictory evidence


- poor control in Lombroso's research


- causation is an issue

What is the contribution to criminology evaluative point of the atavistic form?

- shifted crime explanations from moralistic to scientific realm


- categorising characteristics=beginning of offender profiling


- major contribution to science of criminology

What is the scientific racism evaluative point of the atavistic form?

DeLisi: many atavistic features belong to people of African descent;described as 'uncivilised'


- controversial;could lead to discrimination

What is the contradictory evidence to the atavistic form?

Goring: compared 3000 (non)criminals=no evidence for distinct offender characteristics


- intelligence may be better indicator of criminality than atavistic form

What is the poor control in Lombroso's research evaluative point of the atavistic form?

- didn't have control group=significant differences may disappeared


- many criminals had previous psychological disorders=could have caused physical characteristics=confounding variable

What is the causation is an issue evaluative point of the atavistic form?

- atavistic characteristics don't necessarily cause offending behaviour


- may be influenced by poverty, poor diet than evolutionary throwback

What is the genetic explanation of offending behaviour?

- offenders inherit gene(s) that predispose them to crime

What was Lange's research into the genetic explanation of offending behaviour?

13 MZ/17 DZ twins;one twin served prison time;10MZ/2DZ co-twin also served prison time


- genetic factors play predominant part in offending behaviour

What was Christiansen's research into the genetic explanation of offending behaviour?

- 87 MZ/147 DZ pairs;concordance 33% MZs/12% DZs=supports view that offending has genetic component

What was Tiihonen's research into the genetic explanation of offending behaviour?

- genetic analysis 900 offenders;abnormality in two candidate genes related to violent crime


MAOA: dopamine/serotonin


CDH13: substance abuse/ADD


- both genes=13x violent history;research not replicated

What is the diathesis stress model for offending behaviour?

- tendency to criminal behaviour is a combination of genetic and biological/psychological triggers

What is the neural explanation of offending behaviour?

- dysfunction of the brain/nervous system


- evidence comes from those with APD=reduced emotions/lack empathy

What was Raine's research into the neural explanation of offending behaviour?

- studied APD brain


- reduced activity in prefrontal cortex (regulates emotional behaviour)


- 11% reduction in grey matter in prefrontal cortex vs control

What was Keysers' research into the neural explanation of offending behaviour?

- criminals asked to empathise, empathy reaction controlled by mirror neurons activated


- swiched on/off

What are the evaluation points of the genetic and neural explanations of offending behaviour?

- problems with twin studies


- support for the diathesis stress model


- problems with adoption studies


- biological reductionism


- biological determinism

What are the problems with twin studies for the genetic and neural explanations of offending?

- poorly controlled


- MZ/DZ judged on appearance not DNA=lack validity


- small/unusual sample=not representative


- twins raised in same environmnet=confounding variable

What is the support for the diathesis stress model for the genetic and neural explanations of offending?

Mednick: 13,000 Danish adoptees;>1 court conviction;no parent convictions=13.5%;one parents=20%;both adoptive/biological parents=24.5%


- environmental influence cannot be disregarded

What are the problems with adoption studies for the genetic and neural explanations of offending?

- presumed separation of genetic/environmental influence complicated


- late adoption=infancy with biological parents/maintain contact


- difficult to assess environmental impact of biological parents


Mednick: petty offences, not apply to serious crime

What is the biological reductionism evaluative point of the genetic and neural explanations of offending?

- criminality complex;reducing to genetic/neural level oversimplifies


- mental illness, social deprivation run in families=confounding variables


- MZ concordance rates not 100%

What is the biological determinism evaluative point of the genetic and neural explanations of offending?

- criminal gene=legal dilemma


- criminal claim they weren't acting on free will but genes were controlling actions


- loop hole to escape jail time

What are the psychological explanations of offending behaviour?

- Eysenck's personality theory


- cognitive explanations


- differential association theory


- psychodynamic explanation

What is Eysenck's personality theory?

- behaviour could be represented along two dimensions:


- introversion/extraversion


- neuroticism/stability


- combine to various personality traits

What is the biological basis of Eysenck's personality theory?

- personality comes through type of nervous system we inherit


Extraverts: underactive nervous system, seek excitement=engage in risky behaviour


Neurotic: nervous, jumpy, general instability=behaviour difficult to predict

What is the criminal personality according to Eysenck's theory?

- neurotic-extravert=combination of respective characteristics


- score highly on psychoticism=cold, unemotional and prone to aggression

What is the role of socialisation in Eysenck's theory of personality?

- criminal behaviour immature=immediate gratification


- high E/N score=nervous systems hard to condition=act antisocially

What is te Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)?

- psychological test locates respondent on E/N scale and P to determine personality type

What are the evaluation points of Eysenck's personality theory?

- evidence supporting Eysenck's theory


- the idea of a single criminal type


- cultural bias


- the (mis)measurement of personality


- biological basis

What is the evidence supporting Eysenck's theory?

- 2070 male prisoner EPI scores with 2422 male controls


- divided by age (16-69);prisoners across all ages higher scores than controls


Farrington: offenders score high on P, not E and N; little EED difference between I/E


- doubt physiological basis

What is the idea of a single criminal type evaluative point of Eysenck's theory?

Moffitt: several distinct adult male offender types=time of first offence/how long


- all offending can't be explained by one personality type

What is the cultural bias evaluative point of Eysenck's theory?

Batrol/Holanchock: Hispanic/African American offenders in NY max-security prison


- divided to 6 groups (crime nature/history)


- less extravert than control


- questions generalisability of Eysenck's theory

What is the (mis)measurement of personality evaluative point of Eysenck's theory?

- assumed you can measure personality through psychological test


- some argue no one personality, changes depending on who we're with

What is the biological basis evaluative point of Eysenck's theory?

- recognises genetic basis of personality


- research into APD=same limitations as genetic and neural explanations

Are the cognitive explanations of offending behaviour?

- level of moral reasoning


- cognitive distortions

What was Kohlberg's cognitive explanationof the level of moral reasoning?

- people's right/wrong judgements summarised in stages


- based on responses to moral dilemma


- moral development of violent youth less than non-violent

What was Kohlberg's model of criminality?

- criminals=pre-conventional level


- non-criminals=conventional level and beyond


- pre-conventional: avoid punishment, gain reward=childlike reasoning


- commit crime if they can get away with it/earn money


- higher reasoning=sympathise/show honesty

What are cognitive distortions?

- faulty, irrational ways of thinking which make us see ourselves, others and the world negatively

What are the two types of cognitive distortion?

- hostile attribution bias


- minimalisation

What is hostile attribution bias?

- violence related to misinterpreting others actions to be confronting

What was Schonenberg and Justye's research into hostile attribution bias?

- showed 55 violent offenders emotionally ambiguous faces


- compared to control, more likely to see as hostile

What was Dodge and Frame's research into hostile attribution bias?

- children shown 'ambiguous provocation' video


- aggressive children interpret as hostile compared to non-violent interpret at 'acceptable'


= behaviour rooted in childhood

What is minimalisation?

- attempt to deny/downplay seriousness of offence to deal with guilt


- burglars describe themselves as 'supporting my family'

What was Barbaree's research into minimalisation?

- 26 incarcerated rapists


- 54% denied the offence


- 40% minimised harm to victim

What was Pollock and Hashmall's research into minimalisation?

- 35% child molestors argued crime was non-sexual


- 36% stated that the victim consented

What are the evaluation points of the cognitive explanations of offending?

- level of moral reasoning evidence


- alternative theories of moral reasoning


- application of research


- individual differences


- descriptive not explanatory

What is the level of moral reasoning evidence for the cognitive explanations of offending?

Palmer/Hollin: moral reasoning of 210 female/122 male non and 126 offenders using Socio-Moral Reflection Measure-Short Form


- 11 moral dilemmas


- delinquent less moral than non


Blackburn: due to lack of roleplay in childhood

What is the alternative theories of moral reasoning evaluative point of the cognitive explanations of offending?

Gibbs: two levels: (im)mature; mature=avoid punishment;immature=own conscience


- post-conventional abandoned=culturally biased


Piaget: childlike reasoning egocentric=empathy as we get older

What is the application of research of cognitive explanation of offending?

- treating criminal behaviour;sex offenders=cognitive behaviour therapy=establish less distorted view


- reduce denial/minimalisation highly correlated to reduce reoffending

What is the individual differences of evaluative point of the cognitive explanations of offending?

- level of moral reasoning may depend on offence type


Thornton/Reid: financial crimes pre-conventional vs impulsive crimes=evade punishment


Langdon: intelligence better indicator of criminality

What is the descriptive not explanatory evaluative point of the cognitive explanations of offending?

- describes the criminal mind but doesn't explain it


- useful to predict reoffending, no insight into why crime committed in first place

What is the differential association theory of offending behaviour?

- individuals learn the values/attitudes of criminal behaviour by interacting with different people

What is the scientific basis of the differential association theory of offending?

Sutherland: developed scientific principles to explain offending


- present when crime is present and absent when crime is absent

According to the differential association theory, how is crime learned?

- behaviour acquired through process of learning=interactions with family/peer group


- criminality arises from: learned attitudes to crime;learning specific criminal acts

According to the differential association theory, how are pro-crime attitudes learned?

- socialised into group=exposed to values to law (pro/anti)


Sutherland: pro-crime>anti-crime=offending


- could mathematically predict offender if we knew freq/intensity/duration exposed to anti/pro-crime attitudes

According to the differential association theory, how are criminal acts learned?

- learn techniques for committing crime e.g. break into a house


- shows how crime spreads in social groups


- explains reoffending=learn from experienced criminals locked up

What are the evaluation points of the differential association theory?

- explanatory power


- shift of focus


- difficulty of testing


- alternative explanations


- individual differences

What is the explanatory power of the differential association theory?

- accounts for crime in all sectors of society


- Sutherland recognised burglary concentrated in working class communities


- interested in middle-class 'white-collar' crime

What is the shift of focus evaluative point of the differential association theory?

- emphasis from biological/moralistic explanations to dysfunctional circumstances


- more realistic solution to crime

What is the difficulty of testing evaluative point of the differential association theory?

- hard to see no. pro-crime attitudes person exposed to


- assumes offending occurs when pro-crime outweighs anti-crime

What is the alternative explanations evaluative point of the differential association theory?

Sutherland: family crucial in determining offending=influence value system;supported by offending running in families


- also supported genetic explanations

What is the individual differences evaluative point of the differential association theory?

- not everyone exposed to pro-crime offends=stereotype bad background as 'unavoidably criminal'


- people can choose not to offend

What is the psychodynamic explanation of offending behaviour?

Freud: unconscious conflicts originating in childhood/determined by parent interaction control future criminal behaviourW

What is the id, ego and superego?

Id: immediate gratification


Ego: social acceptance


Superego: balance=moral values


- develops during phallic stage=children develop Oedipus Complex


- punishes ego: guilt=wrongdoing;pride=moral

What does Blackburn say about the superego?

- inadequate superego=criminal behaviour=id not controlled


- 3 types:


- weak superego


- deviant superego


- overharsh superego

What is the weak superego?

- same sex parent absent in phallic stage


- can't internalise full superego=no identification


- criminal behaviour more likely

What is the overharsh superego?

- individual crippled by guilt


- unconsciously drive individual to crime to satisfy need for punishment

What is the deviant superego?

- child internalises deviant superego values through criminal parents=offending behaviour

What is Bowlby's material deprivation theory?

- superior maternal bond


- failure to establish=damaging consequences


- affectionless psychopathy=lack of guilt=offending


- can't develop relationships

What was Bowlby's 44 thieves study?

- 44 interviews with thieves/families


- 14 showed affectionless psychopathy


- 12 of 14=prolong separation from mothers


- non-criminal control=2 early separation=causes delinquent behaviour

What are the evaluation points of the psychodynamic explanation?

- gender bias


- contradictory evidence


- unconscious concepts


- methodological issues with Bowlby's research


- correlation not causation

What is the gender bias evaluative point of the psychodynamic explanation?

- assumed superego girls


- not supported by stats (M:F inmates)


Hoffman: resist temptation;girls moral>boys

What is the contradictory evidence to the psychodynamic explanation?

- little evidence that no same-sex parent=criminal behaviour


- being raised by criminal parent=genetics/socialisation (not deviant superego)


- great lengths to avoid punishment=contradicts overharsh superego

What is the unconscious concepts evaluative point of the psychodynamic explanation?

- lacks falsifiability=applications to crime can't be empirically tested


- only judged on face value=pseudoscientific

What are the methodological issues with Bowlby's research for the psychodynamic explanation?

- researcher bias=preconceptions influenced interviewee responses


- no distinction between privation and deprivation

What is the correlation not causation evaluative point of the psychodynamic explanation?

Lewis: 500 young people interview data;maternal deprivation poor predictor of offending;link doesn't mean cause

What is custodial sentencing?

- sentence determined by the court


- offender punished by prison time/psych hospital

What are the aims of custodial sentencing?

- deterrence


- incapacitation


- retribution


- rehabilitation

What is the deterrence aim of custodial sentencing?

- unpleasant experience=put off offending


- general: message to society


- individual: prevent individual repeating crime


- behaviourist idea=conditioning through punishment

What is the incapacitation aim of custodial sentencing?

- offender taken out of society=protect public


- depends on severity of crime

What is the retribution aim of custodial sentencing?

- revenge by society=offender suffers proportionate to the crime committed

What is the rehabilitation aim of custodial sentencing?

- prisoners leave adjusted for society


- chances for drug treatment

What are the psychological effects of custodial sentencing?

Stress/Depression: suicide rates up vs general;stress=up risk of psychological disturbance after release


Institutionalisation: Adapted to prison life, no longer able to function outside


Prisonisation: socialised into 'inmate code'=unacceptable in outside world

What is recidivism?

- tendency to relapse into reoffending repeatedly

What is the problem with recidivism?

Ministry of Justice (2013): 57% UK offenders reoffend within a year of release


- UK=highest rate of recidivism in the world


Norway: lowest reoffending rates in Europe;greater emphasis on rehabilitation

What are the evaluation points of custodial sentencing?

- evidence supports psychological effects


- individual differences


- opportunities for training and treatment


- universities for crime


- alternatives to custodial sentencing

What is the evidence supports psychological effects evaluative points of custodial sentencing?

Bartol: 20 years, suicide rates 15x higher;most at risk=young single men in first 24 hrs


Prison Reform Trust: 25% women;15% men=psychosis symptoms


- not effective in rehabilitating psychologically vulnerable

What are the individual differences evaluative point of custodial sentencing?

- can't assume all offenders react same way;different prison/regime=experience varies


- many convicted have pre-existing psych difficulties when convicted


- difficult to generalise conclusions to all prisoners

What is the opportunities for training and treatment evaluative point of custodial sentencing?

- access to education=increase employment prospects after release


- anger management schemes=reduce recidivism


- prison experience worthwhile if access to resources

What is the universities for crime evaluative point of custodial sentencing?

- interaction with hard criminals=younger inmates learn 'tricks of trade'


- undermine attempts to rehabilitate


- reoffending more likely

What is the alternatives to custodial sentencing evaluative point of custodial sentencing?

Davies/Raymond: reviewed custodial sentencing;govt. exaggerate prison benefits=appear tough;does little to deter/rehabilitate


- alternatives=community service;maintain employment/family contact

What is behaviour modification?

- behaviourist approach (learned behaviour)


- reinforce good behaviour; punish bad


- through token economy;managed by staff;all inmates required

What behaviourist principle is the token economy based on?

operant conditioning: reinforce good behaviour=token exchanged for reward (avoid conflict=more call time

How is the token a secondary reinforcer?

- the value of the token is from its link to the reward

How is the token economy implemented?

- behaviours/rewards clear before start program


- disobedience=tokens/privileges withheld/removed (punishment)

How does behaviour modification set out to change the behaviour of offenders?

- good behaviour=increments;baseline made


- reinforce behaviours chosen;same selective reinforcement from everyone offender interacts with


- overseen=monitor effectiveness/individual behaviour

What research has been done into the effectiveness of a token economy on dealing with offending behaviour?

Hobbs/Holt: token economy with young offenders in 3 behavioural units (4th=control);sign. diff. in + behaviour vs non-token economy


Allyon: similar effect with offenders in adult prison

What are the evaluation points of behaviour modification?

- easy of implement


- little rehabilitative value


- ethical issues


- passive token learning


- individually tailored=most effective

What is the 'easy to implement' evaluative point of behaviour modification?

- no specialists needed (anger management)


- cost-effective;easy to follow


However: depends on consistency from prison staff


Bassett/Blanchard: benefits lost when techniques inconsistent

What is the 'little rehabilitative value' evaluative point of behaviour modification?

Blackburn: + changes of behaviour lost on release


- token economy not extend beyond prison


- good behaviour not always reinforced


- reward from breaking law=more powerful

What is the 'ethical issues' evaluative point of behaviour modification?

- manipulative/dehumanising;participation obligatory


- withdraw privileges ethically questionable


- no informed consent/right to withdraw

What is the 'passive token learning' evaluative point of behaviour modification?

- corrects surface behaviour(passive learning)


- do for rewards


- anger management more active (reflect=greater responsibility)


- offenders quickly return to offending behaviour

What is the 'individually tailors=most effective' evaluative point of behaviour modification?

Field: token economy with young people with behaviour problems;generally effective;few didn't respond;same group=special program=rewards instant/freq.=more + results


- max effect=tailor to person=difficult in prison

What does Novaco say about dealing with offending behaviour through anger management?

- cognitive factors cause emotional arousal=aggression


- anger quick to surface in threatening situations

How does anger management through cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) work?

- person through to recognise start of anger/develop techniques to resolve anger before violence

What are the three stages to anger management through CBT?

- cognitive preparation


- skill acquisition


- application practice

What is the cognitive preparation stage of anger management (CBT)?

- offender reflects/thinks of anger patterns


- identify triggers(someone looking)=irrational


- automatic response broken by therapists

What is the skill scquisition stage of anger management (CBT)?

- offenders introduced to techniques to deal with triggers rationally


cognitive: + self-talk=calm


behavioural: effective communication


psychological: meditation

What is the application practice stage of anger management (CBT)?

- offenders practice skills in controlled roleplay


- offender/therapist act past anger trigger


- required bravery/commitment


- successful=positive reinforcement

What research has been done into the effectiveness of anger management on offending behaviour?

Keen: progress of young offenders (17-21) in national anger management prog;8 4hr sessions, 1st 7=3 weeks, last after month;initial issues (not serious);final outcomes generally positive


- increased awareness of anger difficulties/increased self-control

What are the evaluation points of anger management as a method of dealing with offending behaviour?

- eclectic approach


- comparison with behaviour modification


- limited long-term effectiveness


- anger may not cause offending


- expensive and requires commitment

What is the 'eclectic approach' evaluative point of anger management?

- cognitive preparation=anger trigger (phase 1)/behavioural techniques (phase 2)/social approach=roleplay (phase 3)


- multidisciplinary=offending complex=address with different elements

What is the 'comparison with behaviour modification' evaluative point of anger management?

- attempts to tackle offending cause;thought not superficial behaviour


- give offenders insight to criminality cause=self-discover management techniques outside prison setting

What is the 'limited long-term effectiveness' evaluative point of anger management?

Blackburn: follow up study;noticeable short-term effect;no evidence decrease recidivism


-role play artificial=not reflect all real triggers


- not a permanent solution for offending

What is the 'anger may not cause offending' evaluative point of anger management?

Loza/Loza-Fanous: psychometric measures=no difference in levels of anger in violent vs non violent offenders


- programmes misguided=justify offender behaviour


- crimes not motivated by anger (financial)

What is the 'expensive and requires commitment' evaluative point of anger management?

- need specialists;prisons don't have resources=not all prisoners have access


- success based on participant commitment


- prisoners may be uncooperative

What is restorative justice as a method of dealing with offending behaviour?

- A system focusing on rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims


- offenders see crime impact


- gives victim a voice

How did restorative justice change the focus of offending behaviour?

- past=crime against state


- restorative justice=emphasis to individual victim


- victims active in process;offenders take responsibility for actions

What are the key features of the restorative justice process?

- focus on accepting responsibility from offender;less emphasis on punishment


- not restricted=victim and offender may voluntarily meet in different setting


- active involvement of all parties


- focus on positive comes for victim/offender

What are the variations of the restorative justice process?

- not all programmes need face-to-face


- financial restitution from offender for psych/physical damage


- flexible: can be alternative/addition/reduce sentence

What is the restorative justice council?

- independent body=set clear standards for use


- support victims/specialist professionals


- advocates restorative justice in preventing conflict in school/workplaces/hospitals

What are the evaluation points of restorative justice as dealing with offending behaviour?

- diversity of programmes


- relies on offender showing remorse


- expensive


- feminist critique


- soft option

What is the 'diversity of programmes' evaluative point of restorative justice?

- programmes flexible=cover range of applications vs custodial sentencing=adapt to individual


However: difficult to draw general conclusions of approach effectiveness

What is the 'relies on offender showing remorse' point of restorative justice?

- some offenders do scheme=avoid prison/reduce sentence (not genuine)


- victim may have ulterior motives=revenge


- no good intent=no positive outcomes

What is the 'expensive' evaluative point of restorative justice?

Shapland: £1 on restorative justice saves £8 through reduced reoffending


- offender/victim meeting emotionally charged=skilled mediator=expensive/few


- up drop out rates=offender/victim 'lose their nerve'=not cost-effective

What is the 'soft option' evaluative point of restorative justice?

- doesn't receive public support=soft option


- echoed by politicians trying to convince the public they are 'though on crime'