What Are The Tools Of A Man's Happiness In Stanza 1 According To Sir Henry Wotton

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About the author

Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) was an English poet, diplomat and politician. His family was well- to-do and he received a good education.
Wotton was appointed ambassador to the court of Venice and later the provost of Eton College. He served as Member of Parliament in 1614 and 1625. He was knighted by James VI.
His love for classical architecture developed during his stay in Venice. His book ‘The Elements of Architecture’ sought to familiarize the English man with architectural theories of Italy. Through the poem, Sir Wotton emphasizes the importance of not giving into temptations and not serving anybody blindly to further one’s interests. Wotton was an influential man and familiar with the pitfalls of his office. He was
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Answer the following questions.
a) What are the tools of a man’s happiness in stanza 1 according to Sir Wotton?
According to Wotton, the main source of a man’s happiness is independence; independence in thought and deed. An independent person does not serve others blindly nor does he serve people to promote his self -interest. His honesty and righteousness serve as armour to protect him while his simplicity is his greatest virtue.
b) Why is the man’s conscience called his ‘retreat’?
A retreat means a quiet and safe place where one can get away from the hustle and bustle of life. Just as a retreat offers peace and sanctuary to those who seek it, a man’s conscience is his refuge that enables him to tackle the stress and strain of life.
A person who wishes to lead a contented life leads a life free from gossip and speculations. His clear conscience is his greatest strength. It guides him down the path of righteousness and makes him take the right decisions at all times.
c) How does a happy man pray to
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The poet is referring to an independent man who is capable of making his own decisions without being influenced by others.

ii) How is a person ‘Lord of himself?
A person who can control his mind without giving into his emotions is master of himself. Such a person accepts the good and the bad that life offers him with equal serenity. Adversities are used as a stepping stone to forge a better personality. The calmer one gets in the face of difficulties, the easier life becomes. Such a person is a true master of himself. iii) How can a person be happy when he has nothing? Explain.
Though a person may have no material possessions and owns no land and riches, he possesses a clear conscience and is thus truly master of himself. A person may have no material wealth but he has peace of mind, serenity, a clear conscience and the company of honest friends that are more important and enduring than wealth. Riches are not permanent and adversity can come upon anyone. But honesty, kindness and integrity stay on forever.

3.Think and Answer
a) In order to be truly happy what characteristics should an individual possess according to Wotton? Why? - Refer summary

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