Water Hammering Case Study Solution

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The major problem discussed in this case study is water hammering. Water hammering is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid is in motion forced to stop or change direction suddenly. This problem usually occurs in chemical plant industries where huge pipelines are used. The alternative solutions for each minor problem are:
• Pipe bursting
Pipe bursting is considered as a dangerous problem which leads to many industrial and financial consequences. In order to avoid this problem there are many alternative solutions such as:
1) Using Alternative material for the pipes
When the pipe material is glass fiber reinforced (GBR) it has more opportunity to get pipe bursting problem, so instead of having pipes made of (GBR) they replace it with
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For instance, pipes which are made of this material have high corrosion resistance, high toughness, high strength and more ductility. While the cons are the high cost of it comparing it to GBR.
2) Installing flow meter indicators
Flow meter indicators are devices used to measure the flow rate of any liquid or gas fluid moving through the pipe. By applying this solution, the technicians will have an idea about the pressure of water inside the pipe and at the same time they will be able to prevent any incidents due to the high pressure of water. The most popular indicator is electromagnetic flowmeter.
The advantages of using flow meter indicators are that they can be effectively used in the measurement of liquid flow rate for combustibles, also they are capable for measuring the flow of liquids in different directions and no additional pressure drops.
The disadvantages are that it is expensive and it is suitable for fluids with conductivity more than 20 micro
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There are some advantages and disadvantages of this solution, one of the advantages of using pressure safety valve is to reduce the high pressure in the pipeline. While one of the disadvantages is that it cannot be used to ensure downstream for all equipment.
2- Installing Indicators:
Indicator is a device which used to monitor the quantity or the level of fluid which passes over the pipe. The advantages of the indicator are measuring the level of water before it passes to the valve in order to avoid valve exploding, while the other advantage is low maintenance cost. The disadvantage is it cannot monitor high quantity of fluid.
3- Increase the surface area of the pipeline:
The most important advantage of increasing the surface area of the pipeline is to decrease the high pressure to prevent valve exploding. One of the disadvantages of increasing the surface area of the pipeline is it might occupy lots of space in the plant and at the same time it might cost a

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