Vaccines Essay

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What are vaccines?
Vaccines are medications that are designed to stimulate the body's immune system and to generate a response that will protect the individual from disease caused by the pathogen(11)
When you get a vaccine, you get a small amount of a dead form of the organism which causes the antigens and antibodies to react and so this allows the immune system to get stronger. It is not the actual amount needed for a vaccine but the immune system still has the ability to produce certain antibodies that can recognise and attack the organism if you get exposed to it. These are also called preventive diseases which are used to prevent diseases like polio, chicken pox, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza (flu), and hepatitis A and B. There are
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When you get sick your body creates special proteins called antibodies to fight the infection and the antibodies keep you from getting sick again.
Newborn babies are already protected against several disease because antibodies have passed into them from their mothers via the placenta. This is called "passive immunity” and Passive immunity only lasts for a few weeks or months(5).

How Vaccines are made?
1.Generate antigens
“The growth and harvesting of the pathogen itself or generation of recombinant protein. The bacterial pathogens are then grown in using a goeth medium which is used to optimise the yield of the antigen”(4).
2.Release & Isolate
Antigens are released from the cell and are then isolated from waste products which allows for the viruses or bacteria to be released out.

3.Purify
Chromatography is used in this section as vaccines are made from recombinant DNA which will involve the antigen being purified.(6)
4.Strengthen - The substances that are contained in each vaccine need to be strengthened as to protect them from any antibodies entering which increases the effect of people not receiving
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”How Vaccines Work — History of Vaccines." History of Vaccines RSS. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/how-vaccines-work>

6. "Infants, Children, & Teens (birth - Age 18) | Vaccines.gov." Infants, Children, & Teens (birth - Age 18) | Vaccines.gov. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.vaccines.gov/who_and_when/infants_to_teens/index.html>

7. ”Ingredients of Vaccines." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22 Feb. 2011. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/additives.htm>

8. ”Side Effects of Vaccines." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 19 Aug. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm>

”Schedule for Adults." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 15 Jan. 2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5901a5.htm>

10. ”Vaccines.” Vaccines. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/prevention/prevention-research/vaccines/index.html>

11. ”What Are Vaccines." The Jenner Institute. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

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