Three Key Characteristics Of Young Learnerers In Learning

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2. Characteristics of Young Learners in Learning
There are some popular theories can be applied in Teaching English for Young Learners (TEYL) classroom situation by some expert. According to Vygotsky (1962), Children learn through social interaction. Children build their knowledge through other people, interaction with teachers and their friend. Teachers have roles as arbiter the world for children through playing, ideas, experiences, question, and stories. Teachers work actively with children in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD: difference between the child's capacity to solve problems on his own and his capacity to solve them with assistance). Then, Piaget (1970) mentioned that children are active learners and thinkers. Children build
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Bailey (2005) in his book “Practical English Language Teaching Speaking” explained about three key principles for teaching speaking to beginning learners/young learners. First, provide something for learners to talk about. It means when students speak, they usually speak about something. It can share ideas, thought or emotions, the comment about a topic like incident interesting, etc. According to Pennington (1995), teachers should attend to the communicative needs and purposes of language learners. So, the teacher should remember about natural joy and enthusiasm by talking about something interesting and accomplish original or genuine purposes in teaching learning process. Second, create opportunities for students to interact by using group work (three or more students working together to complete a task using the target language) or pair work (two students working together). Pennington (1995) explained that using pair work and group work can increase students’ motivation and promote choice, creativity, realism, independence, and manipulate physical arrangements to promote speaking practice. The alteration of the physical environment can encourage speaking activities. There are some manners to motivate students in speaking such as: the inside-outside circle (a technique for giving students the opportunity to repeat a conversation or interview with several new people, in order to construct fluency and confidence), tango seating (simple seating arrangement …show more content…
According to Dempsey et al. (1996), they define a game as …a set of activities involving one or more players. It has goals, constraints, payoffs, and consequences. A game is rule-guided and artificial in some respects. Then, Prensky (2001) mentioned that a game seen as a subset of both play and fun. A game is recognized as organized play that gives us enjoyment and pleasure. Furthermore, Andrew Wright, David Betteridge, et. al. (2006) in his book entitled “Games for Language Learning” defined a game as an activity which is entertaining and engaging, often challenging, and an activity in which the students play and usually interact with others. Based on the definition of games above, it can be seen games can give students enjoyment and pleasure in doing the activity. It is a valuable activity that can be used to motivate young learners greatly in teaching The English

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