Three Causes Of The Expectancy Model Of Motivation And Employees

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Process theories Need theories explain why a person must act, but do not explain why specific actions are chosen in specific situations to obtain specific outcomes (Latham & Pinder, 2005). Process theories try to interpret employees’ perception processes and to link need satisfaction and job performance.
Equity Theory was formulated by J. Stacy Adams, which focuses on how employees perceive the relationship between outcomes they receive and efforts they contribute by comparing own outcome-input ratio with that of a referent. According to equity theory, highly motivated employees are those who perceive their treatment to be fair and will continue to put in current level of effort. For instance, executives desire to be paid fairly against their
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Factors that influence employees’ expectancy perception include self-esteem, self-efficacy, previous success at the task, help received from a supervisor and subordinates, information necessary to complete the task as well as good materials and equipment to work with (Kreitner, 2012). For managers to address the problem lying in low expectancy, they can boost employees’ self-esteem through expressing respect and confidence in their employees’ capabilities, provide training and knowledge-sharing closely related to the task, ensure work environment by resource and process support, and most importantly, make it clear to employees what is expected of them. For instance, Procter & Gamble, the world 's largest multinational consumer goods company, states and enforces values like “We respect our P&G colleagues” , “We have confidence in each other’s capabilities and intentions” and “We inspire and enable people to achieve high expectations, standards and challenging goals” (P&G, …show more content…
According to the study by Bartol and Locke, if an employee expects that the group will attain organisational goals without his contribution, he may not be motivated to put forth effort (e.g., social loafing). Conversely, if an employee expects that the group will be unable to achieve organisational goals even with his best efforts, he may not be motivated to put forth these efforts (e.g., reduction of individual effort in response to work group social norms of restricting work effort or performance) (Kanfer, Chen, & Pritchard,

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