# Thermodynamic Process Of The Vacuum Fask

1112 Words 5 Pages
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 History
In 1892, a scientist at Oxford University, Sir James Dewar has invented the “vacuum flask”. This bottle created a vacuum, which is an effective insulator. Dewar created his insulated bottle by sealing one bottle inside another and pumping out the air between them. In 1904, German glass-blower Reinhold burger and his partner Albert Aschenbrenner who patented Dewar’s invention and manufactured it for commercial use. They are the one who made bottles for Dewar. Burger and Aschenbrenner held a contest to name the “vacuum flask”. A resident of Munich submitted the name “Thermos”, which came from Greek word threm, which means hot.
Paalen, Burger, and Aschenbrenner did not register the now well-known Thermos name until
The processes are characterized by the thermodynamic variable that is kept constant, while other variables such as temperature, pressure, volume, etc. change during the process. The processes are adiabatic process, isothermal process, isobaric process and isochoric process. Before going into the further explanation on types of thermodynamic processes, the real-life application of First Law of Thermodynamics that we choose is Thermos flask (or known as Vacuum flask).
A flask keep hot things hot or cold things cold because it does not allow heat by any three ways of heat can travel. Three ways heat can be transferred are conduction in solids, convection of fluids (either liquid or gases) and radiation through anything that allow radiation to pass.
Thermal equilibrium is an important concept in thermodynamics. When two systems are in thermal equilibrium, there is no net heat transfer between them. This occurs when the systems are at the same temperature. In other words, systems at the same temperature will be in thermal equilibrium with each
The first law of thermodynamics then becomes:

∆U = 0 = Q – W, ∴Q = W

All the heat added to the system is used to do work. That means the isothermal compression between the double-wall in the vacuum coffee flask the work done on the gas (vacuum) goes out of the gas as heat that is lost to the surroundings. In the other words, all the heat absorbed by the gas from the liquid is converted to work in an isothermal expansion.

In isothermal process that relates to vacuum coffee flask, heat flows in and out of the gas. This can accomplished by either keeping in the gas (vacuum) between the silver surfaces that are made of a good thermal conducting material like glass or by carrying out the process very slowly.

(Heat transfer, and the first law of Thermodynamics, (n.d.)) & (

• ## Principle Components Of Rankine Cycle

In the Carnot cycle all the heat transfer is at constant temperature, and therefore the vapor is superheated in process 3–3. Note, however, that during this process the pressure is dropping, which means that the heat must be transferred to the vapor as it undergoes an expansion process in which work is done. This heat transfer is also very difficult to achieve in practice. Thus, the Rankine cycle is the ideal cycle that can be approximated in practice. In the following sections, we will consider some variations on the Rankine cycle that enable it to approach more closely the efficiency of the Carnot…

Words: 766 - Pages: 4
• ## Explain The Adiabatic Reaction Temperature Of Pyro-Oxidation Zone

The temperature of the reduction zone is around and hence no equilibrium is achieved in the reduction zone. (Sharma) modelled the gasification for a downdraft gasifier by dividing it into two zones: the first zone in which drying, pyrolysis and oxidation occur and the second in which char reduction takes place. The reduction zone is modelled based on finite rate kinetics. The reactions taking place in the reduction zone are: The equilibrium constants for these reactions are obtained similarly as for the reactions of pyro-oxidation…

Words: 905 - Pages: 4
• ## Thermodynamics

According to Hewitt, "The basic idea behind a heat engine, whether a steam engine, internal combustion engine, or jet engine, is that mechanical work can be obtained only when heat flows from a high temperature to a low temperature (Hewitt 475)." However, all the heat from the high temperature is not converted into work. Some heat flows into work, but most is in lost low temperature. If we wanted to know how much heat can be converted into work, we would have to find the Carnot efficiency. The Carnot efficiency of a heat engine is the ideal maximum percentage of input energy that the engine can convert to…

Words: 861 - Pages: 4
• ## Refrigeration Essay

Evaporator. This element presupposes the maintenance of low pressure. Thus, heat could be absorbed to boil the fluid at a low temperature. 2. Compressor.…

Words: 2563 - Pages: 11
• ## Thermos Lab Report

The almost nonexistence spaces of air created by all the tightly bound layers results in almost no transfer of heat from the wall containing the hot water to the outer wall by convection. The polystyrene lid is also used in order to prevent heat loss via convection as hot air rises to the top, carrying energy with it. The aluminium foil in each layer, prevents heat loss by radiation as it reflects radiated heat back to the inside, the same way a space blanket…

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6
• ## Silicon Carbide Analysis

Thermal or any external forces causes the atoms to oscillate. The quantum or the collective of vibrational energy that originate due to the oscillating atoms within a lattice structure is known as phonon. Phonon does not carry any momentum because of the relative motion of the atoms and the motion of their center of mass. However, for practical purpose we can describe that phonon is neither a wave nor a particle "quasi-particle" thus, it has momentum ℏq [33]. Phonons play a major role in understanding materials and their physical properties of condensed matter such as specific heat and thermal conductivity.…

Words: 1507 - Pages: 7
• ## Essay On Freezing Point Experiment

Do not remove the thermometer and the stir wire. Transfer the solid from the weighing boat into the cyclohexane, stir well to obtain clear Solution 1. All solid must dissolve, including any on the walls of the large test tube. 13. Close the large test tube, and adjust the thermometer and the stir wire.…

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7
• ## Molar Dehydration Experiment

The molar enthalpy of dehydration is not able to be determined in a one-step calorimetry experiment because the dissociation of ions occurs when the solution dissolves in water. Hess’s Law allows for the two thermochemical equations to be added resulting in a net equation, one that describes the molar enthalpy of dehydration. Calorimetry is using a tool, the calorimeter, which insulates the system from the environment. This allows for the changes of temperature to be observed with minimal heat loss to the environment. Calorimetry allows for the heat of the solution to be calculated since the heat capacity of the calorimeter is known and the change in temperature is observed.…

Words: 1267 - Pages: 6
• ## The Effects Of The Bose-Einstein Condensate

When you boil water, the vapor collects on the lid and cools down to become a liquid again, which then is a condensate. The bose-einstein condensate happens at a very low temperature. At zero kelvin, all molecular motion completely stops. Scientists figured out how to get a temperature a billionth of a degree above absolute zero. And when temperatures reach that low you are able to create a Bose-Einstein Condensate with some very special elements.…

Words: 1613 - Pages: 7
• ## Distillation Lab Report

Once the fractional distillation setup is complete, the stirbar in the Erlenmeyer flask containing the binary solution is turned on to ensure homogeneous boiling. As the solution starts to boil, vapor containing the more volatile component travels upward through the column until the temperature gradient becomes too cool and it condensates on the side of the distillation column. The verticality of the column provides a surface area for the vapors to condense and flow back down the column until the temperature becomes hot enough for it to vaporize again. This process of re-condensation and re-evaporation continues until the vapor becomes purely the more volatile compound. Once at the stillhead, the pure vapor meets a water-cooled condenser that cools the vapor causing it to condensate and flow into a Falcon tube receiver.…

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5