Angles and shapes

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• USGS 7-½ minute quad sheets (ArcGIS Resource center, 2013).

• North America (USGS, central meridian with a scale factor of 0.926) (ArcGIS Resource center, 2013).

• Topographic maps of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain after 1920 (ArcGIS Resource center, 2013).

• UTM and Gauss–Krüger coordinate systems. Divide the world into 60 north and south zones six degrees wide. Each region with a scale factor of 0.9996 and false easting of 500,000m. Regions which are south of the equator have a false northing of 10,000,000m to confirm that all the values of y are positive. Zone 1 is at about 177° W (ArcGIS Resource center, 2013).

The Gauss–Krüger coordinate system is a lot like the UTM coordinate system. For instance, Europe is divided into regions that are six degrees wide with central meridian of region 1 equal to 3° E. Limitations are alike as those of UTM excluding for the scale factor, that is equal to 1.000 instead 0.9996 (ArcGIS Resource center, 2013). Specific places similarly add the zone number times one million to the 500,000 false easting value. GK zone 5 might have a false easting value of 500,000 or 5,500,000m (ArcGIS Resource center,