The Social Exchange Theory And Theoretical Theories

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2.5 Theoretical and conceptual framework
Social Exchange Theory is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. Social exchange theory derives from several distinct lines of theoretical work in the social sciences, including social behaviorism, utilitarianism, and functionalism (Turner 1986). Exchange theory uses the concepts of rewards and costs. This refers to the benefits that a person can receive through interpersonal exchange in their social relationships. Rewards are defined as the pleasures, satisfactions, and gratifications a person enjoys from participating in a relationship (Thibaut and Kelley 1959). The costs of social exchange relationships can involve punishments experienced, the energy invested in a relationship, or
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A group will perform well when all of its members communicate and interact with each other during their discussion. A small group must have minimum of three people and up to about ten or twelve as a high-end limit (Zeuschner, 2003). Group size affects performance as well as satisfaction. For example, larger group tend to take more time to reach decisions, particularly if unanimity is required. Most of the researchers agree that five to seven members is the ideal size for a small group (Hamilton & Parker, 2001; Lumsden & Lumsden, 2004). We also know that as a group size increases, a number of subgroups may form, and that these factions tend to polarize and to distract members from the problems at hand (Tubbs, 2010). If there are too many members in a group, it is good to break the group into smaller units. As Benenson, Gordon, & Roy (2009) …show more content…
Those who play these roles always focus on the emotional tone in a meeting. Since no one wants to spend his or her entire time being logical, gathering information, and doing the job, it is important that some emotional needs be met. People who play maintenance roles meet these needs by encouraging, harmonizing, regulating, and observing. First of all, encouragers. The best encouragers are active listeners. They help in rephrasing points to achieve greater clarity. They usually do not make any negative judgment about other group members. Secondly, harmonizer-compromisers. They are the member who helps settle arguments and disagreements through mediation. Thirdly, regulators. Regulators help to regulate group discussion by gently reminding members of agenda when they digressed. Regulators always give chances for others to speak. Finally, observer, Observers aid in the groups cohesiveness. They are sensitive to member’s needs (Hybels & Weaver, 2009). DeVito (2009) in his book Human Communication: the basic course, mentioned other specific roles in maintenance roles. Those roles are compromiser, gatekeeper-expediter, and follower. The compromiser is the person who tries to resolve a conflict meanwhile gate-expediter keeps the channels of communication open by reinforcing the efforts of others. Last, the follower goes along with the members of the

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