The Importance Of Climate And Climate Change

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The Earth climate results from a very complex exchange of energy between the sun and the earth and also the exchanges of energy and humidity which are produced in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere/solid earth, cryosphere and biosphere.

The atmosphere is the central component of the global environmental system from which life is based on. The climate can be defined in general terms as the long term behavior of the environmental system. To fully understand climate and climate change we shall understand the sun and its behavior, the oceans, icecaps, the solid earth and all living things in the biosphere.

The flux of solar energy that reaches the top of the atmosphere is constant and it is called solar constant. The solar constant reaching the atmosphere is 1,369 x 103 KW/m2.. But in average terms, only a fraction of this energy, around 342 KW/m2 generates a dynamics between the atmosphere and the Earth surface, which is perceived through the climate. In general terms, everything which happens in the Earth in this context is generated by the solar radiation.
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In the climate system, all these elements are interlinked and causing interferences on each other. The Earth receives the sun energy in the form of visible and ultra-violet radiation and reflects energy as ultra-violet radiation. The energy received and reflected by the Earth must be in equilibrium but the Earth’s atmosphere affects this balance of energy through the existing gases and clouds in the troposphere (first 14 km from the earth surface). The gases and clouds are able to retain or reflect the sun output and the entire system can change depending of the amount of energy trapped by these elements or reflected by

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