The Five Stages In The Public Policy-Making Process

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1. Public policy can be defined as steps that the government or any other organisation takes to achieve a certain goal. In this context, it is the government’s decision to act or not to act on an issue. Governments are able to get guidance and accountability from it. Various factors affect decision making, such as values. The public policy process is made complex by issues such as huge amounts of money and value and interests that are deeply held. Policy may be formal or informal. Formal policy is usually planned, discussed, reviewed and published and a specific policymaking body. Informal policy may be ad hoc and usually not written down in black and white. Also, it is usually not very specific but is rather general. Despite all of that, …show more content…
The five stages in the public policy making process. Stage 1- Problem identification and Agenda Building. Very few issues make it to the agenda and those that do are usually because they got attention from the public, and also usually from interest groups. Policymaking bodies such as legislatures and administrative agencies must show interest and have enough information about an issue before it can make it on the agenda and also before it can move on to the other stages. Due to the fact that policy agendas are brief, they can be replaced by other issues, should any crises emerge. (Lumen, 2006: …show more content…
This stage describes how policies are implemented and the challenges that accompany the process. The success of a policy is based on three important criteria. Firstly, a policy needs to come from the person who created it, and then it must go down to the relevant governing bodies within the bureaucracy that has the power to make sure is it passed. Secondly, the policy must be clearly defined and must be easy to interpret in order for it to be implemented effectively. Thirdly, the resources used must not cause competition, conflict or any extensive disruption. (Lumen, 2006: 4)

Step 5- Policy Evaluation. There are a number of standards that are used to evaluate a policy. It can be informally evaluated with uncritical analysis such as anecdotes and stories. More formal and scientific research can provide comparative and statistical results. Evaluation can also take place at different times. For example before and after the policy has been implemented. Although formal research is time consuming and often costly, informal research does tend to be bias. (Lumen, 2006:

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