Essay on The Ethics Of Human And / Or Animal Research
The broadening of people 's understanding of biology and psychology in the past centuries, has not resulted in a full comprehension of what animals feel or think, although the majority of findings in these scientific fields were based on animal models.
Notwithstanding the fact that there is a lack of information on the subject of similarity of the mental experiences of animals used in research, excuses for neglect and ill-treatment of laboratory animals should not be made. One of the fundamental notions is that the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement, based on the work of William Russell and Rex Burch (Russell and Burch, 1959)) need to be implemented in all types of research with animal models. However, some authors believe that the emotional and mental lives of animals are far more complex and cannot be overlooked when conducting research (Ferdowsian and Beck, 2011).
The aim of the current essay is to outline the development of research ethics and what is their applicability in the issue of how and why animals participate in science. Only by the comparison of historical and modern views, as well as by considering the strengths and weakness of different opinions, complex topics as the ethics of animal testing may be understood in a reasonable depth.
The advent and development of medicine has been deeply intertwined with animal research. Prior to the twentieth century, treatments for…